Un  (tagged articles)

The keyword Un is tagged in the following 264 articles.

2017, Vol. 9 No. 06
Basque nationalism is a movement that has encompassed myth, mystery, violence, and compromise, all of which have foUnd their justification from the Unique language, Euskera. The source of Euskera is Uncertain due to its non-Indo-European origin,... Read Article »
2017, Vol. 9 No. 06
Similarly to many European coUntries, the Swedish population often perceive their history as an epoch of homogeneity: a time when every Swedish citizen was believed to have had the same ethnic phenotype, spoken the same language, believed in the... Read Article »
2017, Vol. 10 No. 2
For three decades prior to 9/11, West Germany fought its own war on terror. For 28 years, it faced off against the Red Army Faction (RAF), a small yet highly adaptable terrorist organization that constantly evolved to meet the coUntermeasures deployed... Read Article »
2017, Vol. 9 No. 05
This article explores the role that the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) played in the 2011 intervention in Libya. It examines the R2P legal framework in coordination with events on the groUnd in Libya during the early part of 2011 in order to thoroughly... Read Article »
2017, Vol. 9 No. 05
The character of Benjy Compson from William Faulkner’s 1929 novel The SoUnd and the Fury is a mythic and Christ-like figure with the divine gift of prophecy rather than the retarded man-child that the other characters in the novel view him... Read Article »
2017, Vol. 9 No. 03
The evolution of social media sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc., have changed the way we look at relationships. Social networking sites have become a popular place to meet and connect with other people. They are also a place where... Read Article »
2017, Vol. 9 No. 03
Not long after J.K. Rowling published the first Harry Potter book on JUne 26, 1997, The Boy Who Lived exploded into an international phenomenon. Teachers read Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone to wide-eyed students and parents read it... Read Article »
2017, Vol. 9 No. 03
In 1793-1794, during the height of the French Revolution, a deck of playing cards was introduced that radically changed the future of playing cards as well as symbolically portrayed the transformation occurring in France. To most people, a deck... Read Article »
2017, Vol. 9 No. 02
The Peruvian CommUnist Party (PCP) was foUnded as the Peruvian Socialist Party in 1928 by José Carlos Mariátegui after his analysis of the “semifeudal” Peruvian economic state, which did not strictly follow Marx’s... Read Article »
2017, Vol. 9 No. 02
The International Criminal TribUnals for the Former Yugoslavia and International Criminal TribUnals for Rwanda, for the first time in international law, recognized sexual violence in conflict as crimes against humanity and grave breaches of international... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 12
HUntington’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects aroUnd five people in every 100,000. It is caused by an increase in a polyglutamine region of the HUntingtin protein, resulting in a toxic gain of fUnction mutation... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 12
In 1931, Kenneth Burke challenged the idea that literature and art were merely ornamental. “All of the verbal arts,” he explained, “including literature, drama, speech, pedagogy, and reportage, affect both social knowledge and... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 6 No. 1
A study in May 2014 analyzed food labels in Quito, Ecuador, to better Understand the culture's nutritional commUnication. The study explored what is considered to be a healthy diet in Ecuadorian culture and how this is commUnicated, and also to... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 6 No. 1
For the past four decades, pastoralist activities have been pushed to marginal areas in several regions of Ethiopia. This change was initiated by the Agrarian Land Reform Proclamation of 1974. Pastoralist activities prior to the agrarian reforms... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 6 No. 1
Despite all the information we have regarding climate change and the potential perils of continuing on our path of consumption, people are slow to make the necessary changes. Our tendency to live habitually and the dampening effect continuous negative... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 10
In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the Gulf Cooperation CoUncil (GCC) states in general, women played an important economic role in the pre-oil era (before the 1960s) in addition to their “traditional” domestic role. Fatima Al-Sayegh... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 10
China and the Chinese CommUnist Party (CCP) that leads it has historically limited itself in regards to projecting power and inserting itself into international disputes and affairs. With the exception of its involvement in the Korean War, most... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 09
Something seems different about 2016. Something many of us just can’t place our fingers on. Sure, The Donald looms disconcertingly over us, a threatening testament to American fear, but it’s not like he has transformed the political... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 09
American media generally depicts nationalism as a negative concept, which is threatening to peace and security. However, in its broadest sense, nationalism can incorporate two phenomena: “(1) the attitude that the members of a nation have... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 09
This paper is an attempt to navigate through existing theories of Universalisation of human rights and existing justifications thereof. It is premised on several cultural and political notions that it takes as starting points, not as truisms, but... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 2015/2016 No. 3
When Britain and France signed what became known as the ‘Entente Cordiale' in 1904, it brought into being an era of mutual cooperation between two neighbours whose past had often made them the best of enemies. The partnership served and survived... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 06
The revered Madhyamika Buddhist philosopher NagarjUna is a central figure in the history of Eastern thought. In his Seventy Stanzas, NagarjUna shares his views on many eternal questions including inquiries into what it means to have a proper Understanding... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 06
Although education is at the forefront of innumerable research and development initiatives, some coUntries remain significantly Under-researched. While increasing statistics exist on development indicators and education in The Lao PDR (hereafter... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 06
CRISPR gene-modifying technology continues to revolutionize fields involving biological research. Rapid advancements, however, have sparked a vibrant bioethical debate scene. This research focuses on the effective usage of CRISPR metaphors in... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 7 No. 1
With products available in more than 180 coUntries, Procter & Gamble is one of the largest global advertisers. Considering today's global marketplace, it has become increasingly necessary for multinational companies like Procter & Gamble... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 7 No. 1
FUn. Creative. Engaging. These adjectives may come to mind when thinking of the best places to work. But what makes a company culture successful? This study evaluated internal commUnications in companies deemed "Best Places to Work" by the Triangle... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 7 No. 1
In 2014, Greenpeace laUnched an attack on a 50-year brand partnership between Danish toy company LEGO and Royal Dutch Shell, an oil and gas corporation. Through the analysis of Greenpeace's campaign and LEGO's responses over a three-month period... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 6 No. 2
Published by Clocks and Clouds
Civic engagement and political participation among the US population are waning, and this is particularly apparent in the yoUng adult citizenry. This research paper seeks to assess which variables in civic education and the high school experience... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 3 No. 1
This study is the first to examine credit Union executive pay using compensation information from IRS Form 990. Using OLS, logistic, and tobit regression analysis to identify the determinants of base and bonus compensation of chief executive officers... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 03
In 2014, the United Nations called for "a truly transformative agenda to follow the Millennium Development Goals." This study applies a critical qualitative discourse and textual analysis to examine the first priority of the agenda—to end... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 02
The path towards and the meaning of Nirvana have been central issues to many theorists of the Buddhist Tradition. With this paper, I will describe the path toward and the state of Nirvana from a Theravada and Mahayana Buddhist perspective. By doing... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 6 No. 2
Instagram, a social media app, is becoming increasingly popular as a business and commUnication tool. Analyzing 12 posts on DUnkin' Donuts' Instagram accoUnt, this case study attempted to Understand branding through framing theory. The study foUnd... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 02
At 7am in the morning after the Referendum on Scottish Independence, a triumphant David Cameron stood on the steps of number 10 Downing Street and annoUnced to the world that the Scottish people had, with 55% of the electorate voting No, comprehensively... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 02
The media has always had a strong propensity to influence our opinions and behaviors, creating and destroying public images for hUndreds of years. For many, the media is seen as a representation of reality, an interpretation and Understanding of... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 02
This article explores the genesis and development of The 5 Drivers of Crime (described as "the Underlying causes of offending and victimisation") and examines its impact in the context of policy effectiveness and outcomes. The ‘drivers of... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 02
Building a framework to Understand a complex system, such as American Higher Education, requires a focused approach. The richness of history behind colleges and Universities in the United States can lead analysts in any number of directions. From... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 6 No. 1
Published by Clocks and Clouds
This paper investigates the relationship between various types of economic freedom and intra-EMU export growth. Export growth is the primary empirical puzzle that this paper seeks to explicate, and is important because the EMU's inception preceded... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 11
When speaking to a lay person, the concept of international justice may conjure a perception of impartiality rising above national interests and biases. This view lends itself naturally to the concept of cosmopolitan law, which David Held characterized... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 6 No. 2
University websites across the coUntry showcase the important Underlying values of study abroad: experiencing a "local" culture, creating interactive conversations, and empowering students through personal and academic development. This research... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 6 No. 2
In an effort to Understand how Americans regarded Adolph Hitler's influence in Germany and beyond as he navigated the coUntry's political landscape, and ultimately established the Third Reich, this research examines his portrayal in American media... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 6 No. 2
Like other commUnication-related fields, such as broadcast journalism and print journalism that typically have their own student-led organizations, strategic commUnications students obtain hands-on experience through student-rUn agencies, which... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 11
The controversy surroUnding the origins of the Nazi-Soviet War in 1941, namely over the issue of whether or not Stalin intended to laUnch an offensive against Nazi Germany that year, has produced a contentious debate between revisionist (i.e. those... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 10
This research paper thoroughly explains the concept of money laUndering and examines the costs that are endured by the governments, financial institutions, but most importantly individuals who are most vulnerable to the influence of organized criminal... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 10
While some believe that scientists should commUnicate their research apolitically in research journals, others believe that scientists should commUnicate to the media in order to bring awareness to their research topic. As a compromise to these... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 10
This paper explores how the Cuban Diaspora has formed connections and forged a new identity aroUnd music, meanwhile reinforcing the resiliency, adaptability, creativity and autonomy of the Cuban people in the midst of crisis and Uncertainty. Arts... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 09
Energy researchers have recently taken interest in the use of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a biofuel. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fUngi (AMF), which are known to increase plant acquisition of nutrients through a symbiotic relationship, may be used... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 09
Public relations is a growing field in the United States (Botan, 1992, p. 149). This growth can be partially explained by the fact that public relations is an exercise in power (Curtin & Gaither, 2007, p. 235; Walker, 2006, p. 401). Throughout... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 09
Since the financial crisis of 2007, regulators have recognized the necessity for global governance in an increasingly interconnected global economy. Many have praised the extent to which regulators have already minimized the damage of the crisis... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 09
“Beware: Capitalist-Consumerism poses a danger to our Socialist ideals,” the Soviet-propaganda papers such as Pravdaand Izvestyahad proclaimed since the harrowing days of the Cold War. But by the early 1990s, the evergreen motto of the... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 09
Since its introduction by German-born Political Scientist Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann in 1974, the Spiral of Silence theory has become one of the most-researched commUnication theories that explains public opinion formation in a media environment (... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 5 No. 1
Environmental commUnication is now an emerging and a significant curriculum from schools to research centers. The effective and efficient environmental commUnication occurs when learners interact with their surroUnding environment/ecology in which... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 5 No. 1
After conducting a study in May of 2014 on nutrition commUnication in Ecuador and how it affects consumer behaviour, researchers identified a gap between the level of education obtained by students and the knowledge of nutrition provided to them... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 07
In Virginia Woolf’s Between the Acts, Woolf raises the theme of a progression toward social Unification. Through her analysis of repetition, milieu, and the audience’s shared state of distractedness, Woolf enriches her text by emphasizing... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 06
The concept of a “fourth estate” was first articulated by John Declare, editor of The Times in an article published in 1853. He believed the press had a crucial role to play in British society’s transformation into a representative... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 06
The social uprisings in TUnisia and Egypt that Unfolded in late 2010 and early 2011 were the catalyst for a political awakening that soon after encompassed the globe. The same logic that allowed for localized social populism to flourish, in these... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 5 No. 1
Published by Clocks and Clouds
Organized crime and terrorist organizations cannot be battled by force alone; anti-money laUndering (AML) techniques have become key tools to trace these individuals through their finances. Every coUntry has an interest in implementing internationally... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 6 No. 1
Recent technological advancements have had a drastic impact on the way individuals commUnicate. In this research, previous studies were analyzed, field observations were conducted, and an online survey was administered to determine the level of... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 05
Between the publication of Wycliffe’s Bible in 1382 and the CoUncil of Constance in 1415, a thirty-year period in which there was no shortage of ecclesiastical and secular condemnations of Wycliffe’s writings, ArUndel’s Constitutions... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 04
Vietnam is becoming an increasingly inviting market for foreign investment. However, working with foreigners and expanding business abroad can be risky for all parties involved. The diversity among business cultures frequently leads to confusion... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 04
The beginning of any social relationship is often ambiguous (Edelmann, 1985, p. 195). If a social interaction proves to be troublesome, conflict may occur. While conflict is an inevitable facet of life, it is not necessarily a negative phenomenon... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 03
When politicians attempt to commUnicate their views in the public forum, the practice can be seen as a perquisite of the democratic process. This can prove to be an ideal environment for public relations, as the industry can identify and clarify... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 02
The Haqqani Network has proven itself to be one of the most deadly, daring and inventive terrorist organizations in modern times. Based in the Pakistani tribal lands of North Waziristan, the network has a deep relationship both with the Pakistani... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 02
GUn control and federal reform of firearm legislation have recently become popular and contentious topics in Washington D.C. and aroUnd the coUntry. Yet despite vast public support, none of the legislation proposed by the Obama administration has... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 02
Much has been said in regards to Barack Obama’s revolutionary use of technology during both his 2008 and 2012 campaigns for President of the United States. Yet, during his administration, that groUndbreaking tactic suddenly disappeared. In... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 02
Philosophers have been grappling at what characterizes the manifestation of what we call “ideology” for some time now. Is it based in some written or spoken manifesto? Or is it much murkier than that— a frame for what we think... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 02
What is “revolution”? Can the Maidan movement in Ukraine, which led to the ousting of Viktor Yanukovych in February 2014, be called a revolution? If so, what are the implications of calling the Maidan movement a revolution? While a &... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 02
Rising rates of chronic diseases, aging populations, and moUnting medical costs threaten the financial solvency of the health care systems of the United States and Costa Rica. Despite ranking 1st in health expenditures, the United States achieves... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 11 No. 1
Published by Discussions
In 2013, developing coUntries were expected to receive $414 billion in remittances – money sent back home by migrant workers. Remittances have been extolled in academic literature for having a substantial positive impact on development and... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 2014/2015 No. 1
British troops will be winding up their operations in Afghanistan by the end of next year. There may be other specialised things British troops will do thereafter, depending on what happens in Afghanistan from 2015. But sustained ‘combat operations... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 2014/2015 No. 1
Politics is the result of interaction of different groups and commUnities, aiming to ensure peaceful cohabitation of all actors. Due to this relationship between states, statements and actions by government officials, diplomatic officers or even... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 2014 No. 1
On May 18th, 2000, the United States enacted the African Growth and OpportUnity Act (AGOA), dramatically expanding trade between itself and Sub-Saharan Africa over the following decade. Yet whereas previous studies in the literature have often sought... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 4 No. 1
What we see is partially dependent on what we are shown. As commUnicators, we have a duty to inform and educate and lead. As environmental commUnicators we have the privilege of explaining how the various parts of our natural world work, individually... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 12
“I didn't get sent here to be elected Prom King.” Chris Christie peppered this signature mantra in many of his 2009 stump speeches, emphasizing that principle, not popularity, would help him lead New Jersey. These kinds of sweeping,... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 5 No. 2
This paper explores the relationship between Christian leaders and Twitter. Twitter’s foUnding resulted in an outburst in the use of the social media platform. Christian leaders quickly caught on, and today they use Twitter for a number of... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 11
Human rights protection in Europe evolved significantly over the last century, culminating in the creation of the European Court of Human Rights. UnfortUnately, the decisions made by the European Court of Human Rights are not binding and do not... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 8 No. 1
The formation and expansion of the U.S. Africa Command (USAFRICOM) signals the increasing strategic importance of Africa to U.S. security interests, especially in light of the 2014 U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit on strategic relations. USAFRICOM is... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 8 No. 1
What are the prospects for European Union accession in Bosnia, a coUntry with a legacy of ethnic conflict and malfUnctioning democracy? How might the accession of Croatia to the European Union affect this process? This paper analyses the current... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 10
In July 2013, a general strike and mass demonstrations erupted in TUnisia after Mohamed Brahmi, an opposition leader to the democratically elected Islamist Ennahda party, was assassinated. Under public pressure, and with the facilitation of the... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 10
In July 2012, Spain's Unemployment rate was above 20%, its stock market was at its lowest point in a decade, and the government was borrowing at a rate of 7.6%. With domestic demand depleted and no sign of recovery in sight, President Mariano Rajoy... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 4 No. 1
This article is a brief overview of The Lorax, by Dr. Seuss, the story of a repentant ex-industrialist who tells a tale of environmental degradation in the name of industrialism, progress, and profit, heedless of warnings from the Lorax—who... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 4 No. 1
The word culture is rich with complex meanings and despite its use in common speech little is known about it and even less about the practices that contribute to ‘its’ continued existence, what might be called cultural sustainability... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 06
The issue of foreign labor in Saudi Arabia is now one that touches all corners of the globe. Since 30% of Saudi Arabia's population of 27.3 million are immigrants from other coUntries, changes in Saudi labor laws affect not only the workers but... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 06
The major purpose of this review article is to explore the influence of hydrogen peroxide on cell signaling and gene expression patterns in plants, within the context of defense responses to a variety of biotic stressors, abiotic stressors, and... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 4 No. 2
Published by Clocks and Clouds
The North American Treaty Organization (NATO) was foUnded at the outset of the Cold War and served as a collective defense alliance of states in North America and Western Europe against the Soviet bloc. However, following the end of the Cold War... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 05
Lady Justice, also commonly know as 'Justitia,' has important symbolic significance. However, as we will find through the use of metonymic tokens, the meanings of justice forwarded by Justitia are complex. This paper examines Justitia and the specific... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 7 No. 2
The creation of the Nuremberg Court following World War II exemplified international cooperation, particularly between the Great Powers: the United States, France, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain. ExpoUnding the benefits of justice and the rule... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 7 No. 2
In the ultimate years of the Soviet Union, as the liberalizations introduced by perestroika and glasnost took full effect, the nationalistic convictions of historically discriminated territories within the Russian and Central Asian region began... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 1 No. 1
A European single market for electricity is modeled to find the optimal portfolio of energy generation technologies in the presence of a carbon tax. The goal is to find the Pareto optimal carbon tax rate such that both carbon emissions and production... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 04
Research on the impact of ethnic diversity on ‘social capital’ is relatively new in the field of political science (Stolle et al., 2008: 57). Reinvigorating a prominent and interesting debate among scholars, Robert Putnam awakened the... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 04
Contrary to the scintillating promise of its title, Spenser’s Faerie Queene is a far cry from the insubstantial delights of light fantasy fiction. A narrative poem in six books, this hefty labyrinthine work chronicles the quests of the patron... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 04
The European legal system has been considered as either an intergovernmental legal system or a supranational one. The intergovernmental order, on the one hand, emphasises that the European Court of Justice should consider the preferences of member... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 03
Non-point source (NPS) pollution occurs when pollutants from many different and often difficult to track sources have a negative impact on air or water quality. Even though this type of pollution accoUnts for a substantial amoUnt of water pollution... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 3 No. 1
The first growing season of Edmonton’s Parkallen CommUnity Garden began in Spring 2012. We transformed an Unused strip of lawn bordering our hockey rink into a loamy, thriving “edible food forest” of corn, beans, squash, kale,... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 3 No. 1
As a researcher and advocate of the moUntain gorilla, Dian Fossey dedicated her life and career to Understanding, protecting, and assisting the moUntain gorilla by bringing awareness to the complexity of this animal and to the habitat needs required... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 2013/2014 No. 1
The recent economic crisis roved to be immensely threatening to the economic equilibrium within the European Union (EU). Beginning in the United States, it then proved its "domino effect" by covering the EU, resulting in so-called 'financial stress... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 10 No. 1
Published by Discussions
In order to determine the current state of the industrial food system, both a quantitative survey and a qualitative interview were conducted and administered to various food corporations in the United States. These surveys assessed the corporations... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 12
Internships supply Undergraduates with work experience, networking potential, and opportUnities to apply classroom content to career-oriented professions (D’Abate et al., 2009). Participation in an effective internship program benefits the... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 3 No. 2
This study explored the concept of marketplace advocacy within the context of General Electric's "Ecomagination" environmental campaign. The study looked at what makes marketplace advocacy campaigns successful, how these campaigns are used to conceal... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 3 No. 2
Facebook fan pages allow a brand to create an online commUnity of brand users through the social networking site. By pressing Facebook's "like" button, a Facebook user can become a fan of the page and can interact with the brand and other consumers... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 12
The evolution of the governance model in higher education is a complex idea to pin down with simple definitions. New stakeholders, innovative ideas, and external demands make the institution of higher education a panacea for the ills of society.... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 5 No. 2
Published by Discussions
Candida albicans (CA) is a dimorphic fUngus that commonly colonizes the oral cavity. Overgrowth can result in an infection of the oral cavity, known as oral candidiasis (OPC). Neutrophils play a major role in nonspecific immUne defense against fUngal... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 4 No. 1
Childhood obesity is an important issue facing our coUntry and as a result, public health programs including the Let's Move! campaign have been implemented to prevent this growing epidemic. The Let's Move! campaign released a series of print, TV... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 7 No. 1
Turkey and Iran are both predominately Muslim-populated coUntries with a history of powerful political leaders who have shaped their societal values and perceptions towards capital pUnishment. Until the 1920s both coUntries employed a fairly pUnitive... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 11
Observations from the media and from public discourse on Islamist radicalization reveal that terms such as 'Islamist extremism,' 'terrorism,' and 'Islamism' are often used without a clear or common definition. The same can be said for the use of... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 11
This essay compares Karl Marx’s and J.S. Mill’s Understandings of freedom and their analyses of the impediments to its realization. First, this essay argues that the two philosophers share the same premise that progress is possible and... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 10
Critics often ignore transracial adoption as a literary theme in both Catharine Sedgwick’s Hope Leslie; Or, Early Times in Massachusetts (1827) and Helen HUnt Jackson’s Ramona, A Story (1884), as these two texts’ portrayals of... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 10
This article highlights the European Commission’s role within the European Union (EU), which has been weakened over time. Through this essay various aspects of the Commission’s power in relation to the structure and procedures of comitology... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 10
Mycobacteriophage are the most prevalent type of microorganism present in the biological Universe. In fact, since the first mycobacteriophage was isolated in 1947, well over 2000 new viruses have been identified (Mycobacteriophage Database). The... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 3 No. 2
Three visions of attaining sustainability through urban gardening – at the individual, commUnity, and city level – are explored visually by MacEwan University Design Studies students–Molly Kassian, Nick Larson, and Sherece Burma... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 3 No. 2
Due to the complexity of modern financial instruments, accurate valuation can prove difficult even in optimal market conditions. Traditionally International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) have allowed securities to be valued based on their... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 09
The most striking feature of language seems to be its diversity: contrary to the rather limited physical variations of the human species, there are 6,909 known languages worldwide – none of which are identical in soUnd, syntax, lexicon or... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 09
From his inauguration in 2005 to the end of his presidency in 2012, Mexican President Felipe Calderon presided over one of the most violent periods in his coUntry’s history. Making good on one of his election promises, Calderon Unleashed the... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 09
The quest for economic supremacy has been at the heart of the European integration process since its very inception. Tracing the historical origins of the economic progress agenda, Europe’s ambition to bolster its economy vis-à-vis... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 09
Islam has been Under siege since 2001 and in today's political environment, Muslims are too often associated with terrorism. The heinous attacks of 9/11 were treated by the U.S. not as crimes – which would require criminal prosecution and... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 08
One area in which the division among Irish citizens remains apparent is in the realm of social housing. Housing represents the largest expense as well as the largest investment for most households: home ownership strongly continues to symbolize... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 06
Objectives: Identify the factors affecting quality of sleep, and assess the impact of low quality sleep on the daily activities of students. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was done, using self-administered questionnaires... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 06
On Wednesday, April 19, 1995, Timothy McVeigh detonated a bomb at the base of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building. For the 168 individuals who lost their lives and the coUntless more injured and affected by the tragedy, otherwise going about their... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 06
Each year, thousands of colleges and Universities across the United States hold commencement. This is a time when campus is in full bloom—manicured lawns, farewell hugs from classmates, and final exams. As the graduates march in Unison to... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 06
Within a short span of time, immigration has become one of the major issues in the field of European politics and social discourse questioning the status quo of such conceptions as citizenship, nationhood and commUnity cohesion. Migration within... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 3 No. 1
Published by Clocks and Clouds
The continued application of the death penalty in the United States marks the coUntry as an extreme outlier among its allies and like-minded nations in the 21st century. In order to explain America's retention of this criminal pUnishment, scholars... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 03
The Soviet nationality policy for Central Asia in the early twentieth century was an acceleration of the processes of modernization that the Russian Empire had already begUn. However, building socialism in a region where no working class existed... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 02
Of the three states in the South Caucasus, Georgia has experienced the most political instability since the collapse of the USSR. Some scholars even described the coUntry in the immediate aftermath of independence as a failed state. Despite the... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 5 No. 01
UnfortUnately, the Caucasus often conjure images of violence and war in the minds of many people. Indeed, the region has been plagued by violent conflict especially during the collapse of the Soviet Union and through the first decade of independence... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 2 No. 1
Published by Clocks and Clouds
The subject of European legal integration entered the spotlight of interdisciplinary studies in the mid-1990s and has continued to maintain, if not increase, its prominence in scholarly literature (Mattli and Slaughter, 1998, 177-178). As Egan,... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 12
Interest in the intersection of religion and politics has grown in salience in the Post-9/11 era. Recent scholarship purports that when it comes to religion, Americans are profoUndly ignorant. This ignorance leads to religious insensitivity that... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 12
While in many cases it serves as a stabilizing factor in the international system, and can even be called a force for good, international law cannot be considered “law” when applied to states or state action. To be considered “... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 10
Jürgen Habermas - a prominent German philosopher and critical social theorist - offers a theory of language use that identifies and analyzes the rationality potential of commUnicative Understanding between two parties. Habermas champions this... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 10
As humans, we are compelled to ask the questions, why do we exist? How do we exist? Even, how can I know that I am using this existence in the correct way and with the right intentions? Even the earliest of the ancient philosophers pondered these... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 10
Unique challenges are present in therapy when working with mentally ill offenders in a correctional setting. In order to encourage effective therapeutic change, hurdles such as strong resistance to therapy by inmates, complex etiologies of illness... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 09
When on September 24th,  2011 Russian prime minister Vladimir Putin annoUnced his bid to rUn for president in the presidential elections in March 2012, a supposition in Russia's political regime was confirmed that many observers suspected would... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 09
Throughout the past decade, The Daily Show with Jon Stewart has expanded its depth of analysis and impacted the political process and national discourse in multiple ways. It has established itself as a source of legitimate critical examination of... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 09
The rationale behind the proposal is that in the event of the purchase of sexual services becoming a crime and, therefore, by encompassing a fear of the criminal label being attached to an individual, it will reduce the demand for such services... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 08
This paper addresses the historical, current, and projected scope of wrongful convictions in the judicial process of the United States. Herein, numerous research studies are reviewed in order to identify the trend  of this problem, determine... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 08
By retracing shifts in the meaning, usage, and perception of the doctrine of ‘Soviet containment’, this article provides a balanced accoUnt of the extent to which US Cold War interventions were in fact driven by such a Grand Strategy... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 07
The search for truth is a struggle that has plagued humanity since the dawn of time. At the core of all human beings is an authentic self that thinks and feels on a level which is completely Unique to each individual. Yet too often, people sacrifice... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 07
Addressing finitude as it relates to existence and commUnity, Jean Luc Nancy and Martin Heidegger recognize finitude to be both the impossibility of being at one with oneself and the radical fragmentation of Being, in terms of mortality. Nancy contends... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 07
Multicultural and multilingual classrooms have become the norm in many educational (and professional) settings throughout the U.S. due to changing immigration patterns caused by globalization (Institute for Educational Leadership, p. 2, 2005). Subsequently... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 06
In the early part of the 20th century, the world experienced tumultuous change. At the turn of the century, advances in technology linked humans aroUnd the world like never before, political borders changed in the aftermath of one of the deadliest... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 1 No. 1
Published by Clocks and Clouds
Missionary work has been an integral part of commUnity development in Latin America. However, does missionary work actually impact commUnity development in Latin America today? While missionary methods, particularly holistic missiology, were significant... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 1 No. 1
Published by Clocks and Clouds
Despite a proliferation of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and commUnity-based organizations (CBOs) in Kibera, the largest informal settlement in Kenya, conditions for residents remain bleak. CBOs are Uniquely positioned to catalyze change... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 05
Is European Citizenship merely a mechanism for a deepening financial integration of the European Union? Or is there a deeper meaning and a deeper reasoning for the development of the concept of European Union Citizenship into an all-encompassing... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 05
New York’s 1827 mayoral election was the harbinger for a new era in politics. Tammany Hall—New York’s democratic political machine—suborned thousands of immigrants to vote for the pro-Tammany ticket. With cartloads of Irish... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 04
In his book The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future (2006), Vali Nasr addresses an issue that is gaining increased importance in the contemporary coverage of global Islam: SUnni-Shia relations. Vali Nasr is a widely respected... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 5 No. 2
The rise and entry into force of the 2008 Convention on Cluster MUnitions (CCM) that prohibits cluster bombs constitutes a global prohibition regime. I argue that this new prohibition regime and the arising new international norm set by the CCM,... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 04
LOST is a narrative acclaimed for its complex characters and mythological elements, securing an enormous fan base from different cultures all over the world. As a complex narrative, LOST introduces many components and poses difficult questions that... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 04
On the surface, The Awakening, by Kate Chopin, and The JUngle, by Upton Sinclair do not have anything in common. The Awakening features Edna, a bored housewife who flouts the rules of society. The JUngle features Jurgis, a poor Lithuanian immigrant... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 02
“Most of us are surroUnded by commUnication channels and tools that keep us constantly connected to sources of information and people in our commUnities” (Thurlow, Lengel, & Tomic, 2004, p.83). The current commUnication channel claiming... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 02
Climate change negotiations have been on the international stage for almost four decades. They have a complex history, and act as a comprehensive example of the many variables, obstacles, environments, and processes that can affect any international... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 01
The pUnk-rock movement or youth subculture of late seventies Britain was and is, even today, the cause of much controversy. It has often been accepted that the political orientation of the movement and its outcomes are decidedly located on the left... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 01
Does candidacy to the European Union (EU) increase a nation’s Trade Openness? A good way to begin examining this question is by asking, what is Trade Openness? Simply put, it is a nation’s imports plus its exports divided by its GDP ([... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 4 No. 01
Throughout the ages, commUnication has impacted human interactions and relationships. The dawning of the digital age has changed commUnication, facilitating individual and group interaction in previously Unimaginable ways. However, has such transformation... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 2011/2012 No. 2
This essay will analyse the on-going events in the Eurozone single currency area. It will look at the current sovereign debt crisis, most obviously manifested in Greece, Portugal and Ireland, and try to envisage how it will change the future course... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 2011/2012 No. 2
In spite of the above-described traditional sentiment that the European Union (EU) was primarily an economic actor, with all other priorities seconded to that fact, trade policy has been inextricably linked with the EU’s international presence... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 12
"We must take the offensive! Action gives life, action gives health. At present the Irish cause is received with a hiss and a sneer. This is telling against us. A few bold and devoted heroes must spring up and show the world there is still power... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 12
Compared to other empires throughout history, the USSR was an exception. The rulers of the Soviet Union viewed empire and imperialism in ideological terms as ‘the highest and final stage of capitalism’.[1] By this Leninist definition... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 11
The Constitutional CoUncil was established when the Fifth Republic was born in 1958 (Cole 1998, p. 63). Initially designed as a tool to protect the executive against parliament, the CoUncil evolved into a powerful force against the government (Elgie... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 11
“As the House of Lords has existed for about six centuries without reform, some alterations have become necessary in order to bring it into conformity with the changed institutions by which it is surroUnded.” – Lord Rosebery, 1884... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 11
Since the beginning of criminological research there has been an ongoing debate on the correlation between genetic characteristics and criminal behavior. There have been numerous studies and experiments conducted to help eliminate some of the Unknowns... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 5 No. 1
Elyès Jouini is the vice-president for research of Université Paris-Dauphine and former Minister for the Economic and Social Reforms of the TUnisian transition government. He currently serves as the President of the Fondation Paris... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 5 No. 1
Wael Ghonim, a 30-year-old Egyptian who works as an executive for Google, enjoyed a house in the United Arab Emirates with a pool and a nice car. But when news of the Egyptian protests reached him in January 2011, he anonymously started a Facebook... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 10
This study considers the remote causes of examination malpractice in the Nigerian education system with a view to suggest new ways of combating the problem. Three research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Using the multistage stratified... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 10
While Samuel HUntington's The Clash of Civilizations presents a compelling argument for the events that happened in the former Yugoslavia, the main argument that was set forth by him using religion as the sole cause of the conflicts in the region... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 10
On November 21, 1945, Robert H. Jackson, the Chief Prosecutor for the United States of America opened the prosecution’s case against German defendants in Nuremberg, Germany. The war in Europe had ended only six months earlier, many of the... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 09
Of the European Union’s twenty-seven member states, no coUntry is more sceptical of political and economic integration than Great Britain. The English are profoUndly independent and inherently suspicious of their continental neighbours; an... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 09
VolUnteer conservation is a rapidly growing sub-sector of eco-tourism where fee-paying volUnteers travel to developing coUntries to actively engage in conservation work (Cousins et al 2009b). As volUnteers provide the labor and fUnding for these... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 2011/2012 No. 1
It was commonplace among academics of the 1970s to share an Understanding of the frozen nature of international relations during the Cold War period, and to hold similar assumptions about the fixed character of the nation-state and the importance... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 2011/2012 No. 1
Among European states in the aftermath of the Second World War, multilateral cooperation was seen as a long term stabilisation for peace. The European Union (EU), since its establishment in 1957 as the European Coal and Steel CommUnity with six... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 2011/2012 No. 1
The Treaty of Lisbon1 has had effects on the workings of the European Union, and has significant implications both for how it fUnctions through its provisions on governance and decision-making and on how the Union develops. Lisbon has political... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 2011/2012 No. 1
To say the recent few years have not been the EU’s brightest would certainly be an Understatement. There is so much eclecticism, topic deviation and “eurospeak” that one could forget what the EU really stands for. Just the list... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 2011/2012 No. 1
The Economic Monetary Union (EMU) is the end point of an ambitious and historic stage of integrated market changes1 that not only challenge the structure and foUndation of modern-day liberal capitalism, but also offer – where successful &ndash... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 2011/2012 No. 1
“In God We Trust” - the motto that inspired a nation built on the paradox ‘out of many, one’ could be construed as the wish for ‘divine goodness and order in the Universe’.1 It entails the full recognition of... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 2011/2012 No. 1
The first decade of the twenty-first century was a period of change for Russia. The crisis of the 1990s was/were overcome and its international posture has improved. However, the scope and the stability of the shift are debatable and there is no... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 08
The extraction of non-renewable natural resources in the form of large-scale mining projects has intensified in recent years in Latin America. In fact, the World Bank and other international financial institutions have continued to encourage coUntries... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 06
This project examines the role of the Left Hegelian school of philosophy in Crime and PUnishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky. Special attention is given to Georg Hegel's section on “World Historical Individuals” from Philosophy of History and... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 06
“The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race” is the embodiment of anti-progressivist theory. Jared Diamond challenges the claim “that human history over the past million years has been a long tale of progress,” with... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 05
Insurgency is not a new phenomenon for the United States, in fact by definition the American's built an insurgency during the Revolutionary War. But it was not Until the Vietnam War that America faced an insurgency that it could not defeat. Because... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 04
This case study asks the following question: given the symbol of the European Union as the ultimate supranational, rights-based, compliance-inducing international organization, why have member states France and Italy escaped pUnishment for their... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 4 No. 2
The problem of migration is one of the most urgent ones in the modern world. As a rule, people migrate volUntarily. In the USSR, however, migration against people's free will was quite a widespread phenomenon. Thus, many Russians foUnd themselves... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 04
The Islamic Republic of Iran today sits at the crossroads of Asia between the Middle East and Central Asia. This inherently places it in very close proximity to over half of the world's known energy reserves both in the form of petroleum and natural... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 03
In two postcolonial novels, The God Of Small Things by ArUndhati Roy and Secrets by Nuruddin Farah, both authors use the politics of families to paint a vivid picture of the social, cultural and political conditions of their nations. Roy and Farah... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 03
It is widely recognized that state security is no longer contingent upon a balance of power or the threat of conquering states, but global stability is now instead jeopardized by weak or fragile states. Fragile states represent chaos, disorder,... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 03
"Britain can take"[1] it refers to a film produced by the Ministry of Information in 1940, which had been originally titled “London can take it”[2] and produced for the American public. The film portrays a rather happy go lucky picture... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 03
Violence Undermines an inclusive national identity that considers those of other races, classes and creeds as compatriots, for as Mirowsky and Ross (1983: 238) note, “When other people in one’s life have become a hostile army, social... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 02
It is Universally accepted that a poem, at least a “good” poem, should be able to stand by itself, to be able to strike a chord with its audience, whether this impact is immediate or more subtle and gradual. However, even the best-written... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 02
The Republic of Chechnya in Russia’s North Caucasus region has drawn significant attention for being host to remarkable instability, thriving terrorism, and a staggering display of human rights violations over the past two decades, including... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 02
Despite the fact that human nature has evolved little since the dawn of humankind, our most basal emotions remaining largely Unchanged for tens of thousands of years, one of history’s constants has been our general inability to truly Understand... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 02
The activity of feral Ungulates such as pigs, goats, and deer has resulted in extensive biodiversity loss in Hawaii. These animals were introduced by the Polynesians as domesticated livestock, and now play a destructive role in the local ecosystem... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 02
Though the Holocaust ended nearly a lifetime ago, the systematic extermination of two- thirds of Europe’s Jewish population has left immutable memories that continue to manifest themselves within each new generation of citizens worldwide.... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 2010/2011 No. 1
The European Union (EU) is rarely seen as a powerful actor on the international relations stage. A statecentric, ‘high politics’ view of global politics tends to overlook the involvement of the EU and its effectiveness, 2 and the dominance... Read Article »
2011, Vol. 3 No. 01
The divide between human and non-human, real and not-real, is a problem frequently explored in texts about toys and Undead creatures. Even the term ‘Undead’ is problematic, for while the Undead are not ‘dead’ in the truest... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 12
Vitamin D has long been considered important for bone health because it aids in the absorption of calcium into the bone tissue. However, emerging research indicates that vitamin D is critical for other body systems to fUnction properly, greatly... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 11
When the Preacher wrote, “of making many books there is no end” [KJV Eccles. 12:12] he did not anticipate the mass of articles, scholarly papers and textbooks that would be written about Jesus’ address given to a group of disciples... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 11
In JUnot Diaz’s The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, the de Léon family is in a perpetual hell, moving from struggle to struggle and never able to catch a break. Lola is constantly at odds with her mother, fighting with Beli throughout... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 11
Increasingly, human interactions are being commUnicated by means of electronic, Internet-based medias. Readily available programs and websites facilitate easy transference of messages, thus rendering space and time irrelevant. The quick, efficient... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 10
Sexism is not Unique to Christianity; however, in the Christian religion many of those who identify themselves as Christian fUndamentalists are more likely to hold sexist views of women. Because the scriptures were written during a time in which... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 10
Lucius Annaeus Seneca once said that “All art is but imitation of nature” (Bartlett’s 106) and this has held true for the centuries following him, nature and life reflected in the art and literature of its time. Art shows life... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 09
In 1981, Ricky Rector of Conway, Arkansas went on a shooting spree that resulted in the death of one man and the injury of two bystanders. Ricky also shot and killed Officer Bob Martin, who had gone to the home of Rector’s mother after Ricky... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 07
The United States presidency is a complex role, encompassing both domestic and foreign policy responsibilities. As a major world power, the United States has a large role in the realm of foreign policy, and it is the duty of the president to assume... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 07
There has always been a great deal of intrigue as to why certain people and certain parts of the world are cursed with such a greater deal of suffering than others. Over time certain societies have developed through a series of phases of modernity... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 07
During his first term in office, President George W. Bush claimed that he had a clear political mandate from the voters of the United States to achieve his political goals. However many refuted the claim that President Bush had a political mandate... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 06
When Lenin ushered in the New Economic Policy in August 1921, many Bolsheviks and their sympathizers lost faith in the Soviet government. Throughout August to September 1921, The New York Times’ Walter Duranty vacillated between recognizing... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 06
If Japan was a person, it would be an exceptionally wealthy yet rapidly aging individual, who, for two decades, had been struck by illness. One might therefore find it Unexpected for this person to be busily working on constructing the new face... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 05
To Understand an administration, you need to Understand the key players. Through analyzing the Bush presidency, it is clear that the agenda was constructed and shaped by more than just one man. The President’s choice for executive cabinet... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 05
Money is a term difficult to define. It is a concept subject to deep individual interpretation. For some, money means power, to others, a way of living; some say it begets stability, and there are those who believe it is at the center of everything... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 04
“I came here to say that I do not recognize anyone’s right to one minute of my life. No matter who makes the claim, how large their number or how great their need” (Rand 684). So states Howard Roark, protagonist of Ayn Rand&rsquo... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 3 No. 2
"Our forces were vastly superior to the rebels. Then why couldn't we finish with them quickly? Because they managed to mobilize the population through terror and persuasion. It was therefore imperative that we isolate the rebels from the population... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 3 No. 2
The past sixty years witnessed a global proliferation of international courts and tribUnals of almost all sizes and purposes. Today, they play important roles in international governance by handing down decisions in compelling areas ranging from... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 3 No. 2
How many political, economic, and social mistakes will a population accommodate before it rebels? Due to the self-checking mechanism of elections in democracies this question can be superfluous, yet it still haUnts politicians, high ranking officials... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 04
Peter Kubelka’s 1966 film “Unsere Afrikareise” or “Our Trip to Africa” is a remarkably Unique bit of filmmaking.  Despite a true story to go along with the film’s production (of Kubelka’s distaste for... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 04
Confucianism was one of the dominant political philosophies of Imperial China. Confucianism’s influence declined throughout the 19th century coinciding with the end of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. Some Chinese intellectuals, like Lu XUn, attacked... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 04
North and South is a novel defined by the resolution of binary conflicts: heroine Margaret Hale is presented with a number of divisions of sympathy, between industrialists and the working class, between conflicting views of Mr. Thornton, and even... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 04
The world's largest menorah is not in Jerusalem, Lakewood or even in Crown Heights; it can be foUnd in the town square of  Birobidjan, the capital city of the eponymous Jewish Autonomous Oblast of the Soviet Union. The menorah is 21 meters... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 03
Established aroUnd 500 BCE by Siddhartha Gotama, known better as Buddha, Buddhism has since spread throughout the world, attracting individuals from all walks of life. Since its beginnings when Buddha reached enlightenment beneath a gopi tree after... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 03
With over 20% of United States power production being of a nuclear nature, and all of this nuclear production generating high-level nuclear waste, the US has already accumulated large quantities of volatile nuclear waste and will only have more... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 03
In America, the years from 1946 to 1962, labeled the “post classical era” of cinema, were years in a state of transition. American culture was simply Unstoppable and alive, constantly changing and growing toward a more open society.... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 03
George HUntington first described HUntington’s disease (HD) in 1872 as being a hereditary chorea, “an heirloom fortUnately being confined to just a few families but known to exist as a horror” (Neylan, 2003). This disorder of the... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 03
Democracy is based on the core principle that the power to govern should be in the hands of the people.  In the United States, the people exercise that power by casting their vote for the candidate they see as most fit to lead. This right is... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 02
It is estimated that in North America, alone, there are currently 251 million people who use the internet (Miniwats Marketing Group, 2009).  Individuals utilize the internet for many reasons, including information, social connections, and entertainment... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 02
If Bulgakov is a well know name, the same cannot be said for Matos, who was a literary man considered one of the Croatian masters of Modernism, and a key persona in the coUntry’s culture. He was not only a writer, but also a poet, a journalist... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 02
Every single person living in the United States today is affected by juvenile crime. It affects parents, neighbors, teachers, and families. It affects the victims of crime, the perpetrators, and the bystanders. While delinquency rates have been... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 02
During his Inaugural Address, President Barack Obama resonated with the ideals of many Americans—prosperity, freedom, good will, faith, and determination. He spoke of the market as having "umatched" power, "to generate wealth and expand freedom... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 02
The level of data collection mandated by the REAL ID Act of 2007 should raise concern for all American citizens who enjoy their privacy, because it mandates Unprecedented levels of data collection and an equally Unprecedented level of nationwide... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 01
It has become Undeniable that illicit weaponry, specifically small arms and light weapons pose an Unprecedented global security threat. In fact it may almost be acceptable to say that with the turn of the 21st century, we witness a world which is... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 01
In 1961, nearly a decade after the “Golden Age” of television had passed, commercial television was still changing the American lifestyle, from living rooms to bars. It was then that Federal CommUnications Commission (FCC) chair Newton... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 01
Throughout the twentieth-century, nuclear weapons got deadlier; their range and power have both increased, bringing the potential for greater devastation to the globe. To limit the spread of nuclear weapons, the international commUnity adopted the... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 01
After the wave of liberalization of many African states in the late twentieth-century, the world has seen a rise in the amoUnt of international and internal conflicts that have taken thousands of human lives. Ethnic tensions and economic hardships... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2 No. 01
As the world's first real Marxist experiment, the Soviet Union, by virtue of lasting seventy odd years, proved Western intelligentsia wrong. The latter had long thought it was doomed to fail. When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989 and the Soviet Union... Read Article »
2010, Vol. 2009/2010 No. 1
“But you can’t grow,” answered the Fairy. “Why not?” “Because Marionettes never grow. They are born Marionettes, they live Marionettes, and they die Marionettes.” “Oh, I’m tired of always being... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 12
More than half a century ago, famed philosopher George Santayana observed, “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” In the 20th century alone, the world bore witness to the Holocaust in Europe, as well as genocide... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 12
Hypothyroidism is an Unsuspected illness of epidemic proportions in western civilization Unrecognized by the modern medical commUnity (Starr xix). The affects are far-reaching and pervasive. The purpose of this research is to demonstrate that addressing... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 12
In Enhancing the Recall of Presented Material, Larson (2009) examined the effects of different styles of note-taking and which ones seemed to benefit Undergraduates when tested on the material they were expected to know.  This study specifically... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 12
What critical evolutionary events does the span of human progression include? Anthropologists agree that decisive transitions such as sedentism, domestication, the use of language, and the arrival of culture and complex societies are associated... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 12
The autobiography Black Boy, by Richard Wright, is a tale of hope and determination. It catalogues Wright’s life growing up as an African-American in Jim Crow South, depicting the economic and social struggles that were stereotypical for African... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 11
In Shakespeare’s play Macbeth, he presents the conflicting character of Lady Macbeth. Upon receiving her husband’s letter about the witches’ prophesies, she attempts to be like a man in order to exude the strength needed to gain... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 11
By the time 1921 came aroUnd, Russia’s economy had been maimed by the effects of War CommUnism. Socialism had not begUn on a good note, and Vladimir Lenin was becoming concerned with the UnfortUnate state of the economy. His response to the... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 11
Multiple Undersea internet cables were mysteriously severed and subsequently gained significant attention in the beginning of 2008. The attacks on those cables highlighted the enormous amoUnt of internet traffic that uses the Undersea cable system... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 11
The earliest form of cryptography was the simple writing of a message, as most people could not read (New World, 2007). In fact, the very word cryptography comes from the Greek words kryptos and graphein, which mean hidden and writing, respectively... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 11
News is more likely to be reported if meets one of the following characterisitics: It concerns elite personalities;  It is negative; It is recent; Or it is surprising (Fiske 96). The story of the Bush Administration’s “regrouping... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 11
The simultaneous allure and repulsion of Mexican machismo belies its ambiguous nature as an identifying characteristic of the nation itself and as a phenomenon that some claim is Unique to Mexico and others say is endemic throughout patriarchal... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 3 No. 1
The trend from international armed conflicts toward internal insurgencies has altered our common Understandings of classical strategic wisdom. While traditionally Under the politics of imperialism, wars were settled with the winning state’... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 10
It is common for Americans to imagine the early leaders of the American Revolution as a group of agreeable, flawless men. However, this sentimental portrait fails to recognize the vast differences that existed between the foUnders, and the effect... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 10
Américo Paredes, in his 1971 article “The United States, Mexico, and Machismo” (Marcy Steen, trans.), defines the macho as “the superman of the multitude,” a “national type” by which Mexico, as a nation... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 10
Hisaye Yamamoto’s double-telling stories, according to King-kok CheUng, convey “two tales in the guise of one,” one woven from the explicit words of the narrator, the other from the softened and sometimes pointedly silent characters... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 10
The terms holistic medicine, alternative medicine and complementary medicine have often been used interchangeably. In fact, alternative medicine and complementary medicine are different and holistic medicine is a term which tends to embrace the... Read Article »
2009, Vol. 1 No. 10
The late twenties and early thirties were perhaps the most transformative period in Soviet history. It was during this period Stalin consolidated his grip on power and was allowed to rule with impUnity, instituting his “revolution from above... Read Article »
2008, Vol. 1 No. 2
The United Nations Security CoUncil is the most important organ in the United Nations, charged with determining “the existence of any threat to peace, breach of peace, or act of aggression” and to “maintain or restore international... Read Article »
2008, Vol. 1 No. 2
Since his nomination as Cornell University’s twelfth President, Dr. David Skorton has made a “Marshall Plan for higher education” one of the cornerstones of his tenure. In his first Commencement Address on May 27, 2007, he said... Read Article »
2008, Vol. 1 No. 2
Dr. David J. Skorton, president of Cornell University, first introduced the idea of a new initiative emphasizing the international development of human capacity through the dissemination of University research, teaching and outreach at his first... Read Article »
2007, Vol. 1 No. 1
Fifteen years ago, the collapse of the bipolar world overwhelmed the installed world order. The USA became the only superpower standing and leading the world organization. They have now to deal with emerging coUntries such as China and India. On... Read Article »
2007, Vol. 1 No. 1
In Washington as in Peking, in Beirut as in Bamako, the question is asked of us: what is the European Union’s (EU) foreign policy? In Lisbon on October 18th, the 27 member states agreed to a first response on means and tools. With the creation... Read Article »
2000, Vol. 1999/2000 No. 1
New Labour’ has committed itself to giving each division of the United Kingdom a parliament or assembly of its own. Already we have a Scottish Parliament and a Welsh Assembly (just because Wales is a principality does it not deserve a parliament... Read Article »
2000, Vol. 1999/2000 No. 1
Tony Blair has long been committed to the abolition of hereditary peers; the 1997 Labour Party Manifesto promised that this would happen. Labour knew that reform would be difficult and would upset many people of influence, so they took their time... Read Article »
2000, Vol. 1999/2000 No. 1
At the time of the 1979 Devolution Referendum, when all the votes were coUnted and the results were annoUnced, the then Secretary of State for Wales John Morris famously said: “When you see an elephant on your doorstep, you know that it... Read Article »
2000, Vol. 1999/2000 No. 1
Rugby is an extraordinary game for a number of reasons. In the five nations of the Five Nations Championship, it excites great enthusiasm, but across the five that enthusiasm represents very different hopes, dreams and desires. For some it is... Read Article »
1999, Vol. 1998/1999 No. 1
Imagine if your student loan determined every decision you made in your entire life… Imagine if you owed 30 times more than you could ever earn in a lifetime…. Difficult to imagine because if this situation happened in a developed... Read Article »
1999, Vol. 1998/1999 No. 1
By
When Great Britain joined the European Union in 1973 (then referred to as the European CommUnity) many expected the British common Law system to clash with the European Law system, which is mainly based on its continental predecessors, in particular... Read Article »
1999, Vol. 1998/1999 No. 1
The role of President was laid out in the Irish Constitution (BUnreacht na hÉireann) of 1937 with the first elections to the position being held in 1938.  The role is defined in articles 12-14 of BUnreacht na hÉireann as being... Read Article »
1999, Vol. 1998/1999 No. 2
I think students can have a very positive role if it’s thought through properly.  I think there are many students who are involved in political activity in the Students’ Union or within the Universities political clubs and Labour... Read Article »
1999, Vol. 1998/1999 No. 2
It cannot have escaped any layman’s notice that the United Kingdom will very soon cease to mean anything to anybody at all, if it does indeed mean anything to anybody at the moment. Nationalism and devolution have ripped the soft Underbelly... Read Article »
1997, Vol. 1996/1997 No. 1
When we commemorated the United Nations’ 50th anniversary last year, we all asked the question – what has the Un achieved and is it a living or a largely moribUnd organisation, buried by the bureaucracy and corruption which the media... Read Article »
1997, Vol. 1996/1997 No. 1
It is a paradox of modern day politics that an issue of such immense constitutional and practical significance to the future of Britain as that of further European integration, which excites such great activity amongst politicians, should be... Read Article »
1997, Vol. 1996/1997 No. 2
I was prompted to review the situation in Northern Ireland for a number of reasons, not least because my previous article published in this journal now seemed to be a waste of paper in the light of the disappointing end to the IRA cease-fire... Read Article »
1997, Vol. 1996/1997 No. 2
It is obvious that the majority of the population finds the breaking of promises, especially those made during an election, Unpropitious in anything but the most dire of circumstances. It could be said that if politicians’ election promises... Read Article »
1997, Vol. 1996/1997 No. 2
On the nineteenth of February Deng Xiaoping, the dominant figure of Chinese politics for 19 years, died and left behind him a booming China, and a nation with many Unresolved questions. The British media proclaimed the passing away of ‘... Read Article »

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