Biology

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2015, Vol. 12 No. 1
Published by Discussions
Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that effectively deliver vaporized liquid nicotine to the lungs and are commercially available as a nicotine replacement therapy that is safer than conventional tobacco smoking. However, there is... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 11
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic disease caused by autoimmune (type 1a) or spontaneous (type 1b) destruction of pancreatic beta cells, resulting in insulin deficiency. It is generally diagnosed... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 10
Using data collected through field research at Tyler State Park in Pennsylvania, this study examines the characteristics of Woodchuck (Marmota monax) burrows along a creek tributary. This study finds that there is a robust positive correlation between... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 5 No. 1
Aboriginal peoples of the Northern Alberta Boreal Forest have used fire knowledge and burning practices to maintain their environment for generations. Prescribed burning is vital to Aboriginal peoples' relationships with the environment, and was... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 7 No. 05
There is limited data available on the safety of electronic (E)-cigarettes, despite their commercial availability and widespread use. E-cigarettes are electronic devices that deliver nicotine to the lungs but limited data is available about their... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 11 No. 2
Published by Discussions
To maintain sodium (Na+) homeostasis in a hypotonic environment, freshwater teleosts must constantly absorb Na+ through their gills. Teleosts in temperate climates have the extra challenge of living in an environment in which ambient temperatures... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 11 No. 2
Published by Discussions
The increasing level of obesity in the general population of industrialized nations is a major public health concern. While obesity increases morbidity and mortality, increasing body habitus also impacts the utilization and analysis of medical imaging... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 11 No. 2
Published by Discussions
With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, suppressing the HIV-1 virus and stopping the progression of the disease are now possible. Even with long-term antiretroviral therapy, HIV reservoirs remain in individuals. These individuals experience an... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 09
Gene therapy has ceased to be a futuristic dream and instead become a treatment for the present. Somatic cells can be treated with gene replacements or gene fragments to express required proteins and whilst gene therapy was originally aimed at inherited... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 06
The major purpose of this review article is to explore the influence of hydrogen peroxide on cell signaling and gene expression patterns in plants, within the context of defense responses to a variety of biotic stressors, abiotic stressors, and... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 05
Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) in Holstein calves is a recessive syndrome that is the result of a transversion mutation within the SLC35A3 gene (Thomsen et al. 2006). Though a simple point mutation, this transversion results in high embryonic... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 6 No. 03
The phylum Platyhelminthes is comprised of aquatic worms that span over 20,000 species of either free-living flatworms or parasitic flukes and tapeworms (Rupert et al, 2004). The class Turbellaria consists of the free-living flatworms that are the... Read Article »
2013, Vol. 3 No. 1
Over the past several decades, with the introduction of ecology as a scientific pursuit, China has made advancements in ensuring the health and sustainability of its forests and biodiversity. A very large number of endemic plant and vertebrate species... Read Article »
2014, Vol. 10 No. 1
Published by Discussions
The Ambystoma mexicanum, commonly known as the axolotl, possesses extraordinary regenerative abilities and is capable of reconstituting limbs, retina, liver, and even minor regions of the brain (Muneoka et al., 2008). At the most elementary level... Read Article »
2007, Vol. 2 No. 1
Published by Discussions
The peripheral nervous system is made up of the nerves and neurons that are outside of the central nervous system. These nerves and neurons are used to transport information between the brain and the rest of the body, and when damaged, can severely... Read Article »

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