Palestinian-Arab Media Frames and Stereotypes of Israeli-Jews

By Katy Steele
Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications
2014, Vol. 5 No. 1 | pg. 4/4 |

Conclusion

This study sought to take the pulse on the modern-day Israeli-Palestinian conflict with hopes of better understanding the Palestinians’ perception of Israeli-Jews and of Palestinian-Israeli conflict at large. The author analyzed editorial, opinion and news analysis items on three Arab-Palestinian news websites to see their portrayal of Israel and Israeli-Jews. The key findings of this study include (1) the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is largely defined in terms of land and territory; (2) violence attributed to the Israeli military generates a stereotype that many Palestinians apply to all Israeli-Jews; and (3) stories seek to appeal to emotion and evoke sympathy in order to legitimatize the Palestinians’ claim of true victimization.

Some of the limitations of this study include the generalizability of the study.

Due to time constraints, the author limited the sample size to thirty articles. Future studies should analyze more articles from a broader range of sources over a longer period of time. It should also be noted that the researcher selected articles only from Palestinian news websites that make their content available online for free and in English because the author cannot understand articles written in Arabic. Secondly, since the coding was done by the author alone, her subjectivity might creep in the analysis. Future studies should hire a second coder to enhance the reliability of research findings.


Acknowledgements

The author would like to extend many thanks to Professor Dr. David Copeland for his guidance, encouragement and advice, all of which the article could not be published. The author is also thankful to Professor Skube for sparking the author’s interest in the Middle East, and Dr. Byung Lee for his supervision and help of revision for this article.


References

Anderson, B. Imagined Communities. London: Verso, 1991.

Azoulay, Ariella. Aliniut mekhonenet 1947-1950: Geneologiyah hazulit shelmishtar ve-kafikhat ha-ason le-”ason mi-nekudat mabatam.” Tel Aviv, 2009.

Avraham, E. Media and Social Construction of Reality: The Coverage of Settlements in Marginal Areas in National Newspapers. Thesis accepted for the Doctor of Philosophy degree. Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1998.

Butler, B. “‘Othering’ the archive - from exile to inclusion and heritage dignity: The case of Palestinian archival memory. Archival Science 9, no. 1-2. (2009): 57-69.

“Can Muslims Accept Israel in Their Midst?.” American Foreign Policy Interests 33, no. 4 (July 2011): 178-184.

Caruth, C. “Arrested histories: A response to Francoise Davoine.” Psychoanalytic Dialogues 17, 639–646.

Cohen, Adoni, Bantz. Social Conflicts and Television News; A.A. Cohen, G. Wolfsfeld. Framing Intifada: People and Media. Norwood, NJ, 1993; Liebes. Reporting the Arab-Iraeli Conflict; Wolfsfeld. Media and Political Conflict.

“Danida,” Representative Office of Denmark in Ramallah. http://ramallah.um.dk/en/danida-en/ (accessed December 18, 2013).

Daraghmeh, Mohammed. “Effects of the Conflict on the Palestinian Media.” Palestine-Israel Journal Of Politics, Economics & Culture 10, no. 2 (June 2003): 13.

Dor, Daniel. “All the News that Fits: The Israeli Media and the Second Intifada.” Palestine-Israel Journal Of Politics, Economics & Culture 10, no. 2 (June 2003): 27.

Entman, Robert M. “Framing Bias: Media in the Distribution of Power.” Journal Of Communication 57, no. 1 (March 2007): 163-173.

Entman, Robert M. and David L. Paletz. Media Power Politics. New York: Free Press, 1981.

Evans, Matt. “Framing International Conflicts: Media coverage of fighting in the Middle East.” International Journal Of Media & Cultural Politics 6, no. 2 (September 2010): 209-233.

First, Anat. “Are They Still the Enemy? The Representation of Arabs in Israeli Television News.” In Jews, Muslims and Mass Media: Mediating the ‘Other.’ edited by Tudor Parfitt with Yulia Egorova. Routledgecurzon Jewish Studies Series of University of Kentucky, edited by Oliver Leaman (New York: Routledge-Curzon, 2004), 192.

Gordon, Neve. “A Villa in the Jungle: The Arab Awakening through the Lens of the Israeli Media.” Middle East Law & Governance 3, no. 1/2 (February 2011): 105-117.

Hall, S. “The Spectacle of the ‘Other’” in S. Hall, ed., Representation: Cultural Representation and Signifying Practices. London, 1997.

Herzog, Shamir. ‘Negotiated Society? Media Discourse on Israeli Jewish/Arab Relations.’ Israel Social Science Review 9, no. 18, 1994.

Iyengar, Shanto. “Television News and Citizens’ Explanations of National Issues.” American Political Science Review. 1987.

Jeremy Ginges, et al. “Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents.” Journal Of Research On Adolescence (Wiley-Blackwell) 22, no. 3 (September 2012): 556-570.

Kosicki, Gerald and Zhongdang Pan. “Framing Analysis: An Approach to News Discourse.” Political Communication 10, (1993): 55-75.

Landes, Richard. “Edward Said and the Culture of Honour and Shame: Orientalism and Our Misperceptions of the Arab-Israeli Conflict.” Israel Affairs 13, no. 4 (October 2007): 844-858.

Lindholm-Schulz, H. The Palestinian diaspora: formation of identities and politics of homeland. London: Routledge, 2003.

Qeimari, Ala. “Israeli Media: Serving the “Patriotic” Cause.” Palestine-Israel Journal Of Politics, Economics & Culture 10, no. 2 (June 2003): 23.

Ronen, Gil. “Report: Hamas and Fatah ‘Agree on Unity,’ Israel National News, http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/175248#.UrIF2TnA5Hy (accessed on December 17, 2013).

Seidel, Timothy. “Development, Religion, and Modernity in Palestine-Israel Development, Religion, and Modernity in Palestine-Israel.” Cross Currents 62, no. 4 (December 2012): 424-441.

Shipler, David K. Arab and Jew: Wounded Spirits in a Promised Land. New York: Penguin Group, 2002.

Sloan, WM. David, and Lisa Mullikan Parcell. Media Bias: Finding It, Fixing It. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2002.

Suchet, Melanie. “Face to Face.” Psychoanalytic Dialogues 20, no. 2 (March 2010): 158-171.

Tuchman, Gaye. Making News: A Study in the Construction of Reality. New York: Free Press, 1978.


Appendix: List of News Accounts

Al Ghussain, Alia. “Israeli occupation leaves psychological not just physical scars.” The Electronic Intifada. September 11, 2013. http://electronicintifada.net/content/israeli-occupation-leaves-psychological-notjust- physical-scars/12759 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Al-Shabaka. “Analysis: Can Oslo’s failed aid model be laid to rest?” Ma’an News Agency. November 2, 2013. http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=643596 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Alsaafin, Linah. “Resist Israel’s unjust system, don’t operate within it.” The Electronic Intifada.” September 7, 2013. http://electronicintifada.net/content/resist-israels-unjust-system-dont-operate-within-it/12751 (accessed November 10, 2013).

Baroud, Ramzy. “Ramallah, Gaza and the Palestinian identity crisis.” Ma’an News Agency. September 14, 2013. http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=629688 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Collins, Dylan. “Six-year-old loses eye from bullets Israel promised to phase out.” The Electronic Intifada. October 7, 2013. http://electronicintifada.net/content/six-year-old-loses-eye-bullets-israel-promisedphase-out/12830 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Cook, Jonathon. “Even the World Bank Understands: Palestine is Being Disappeared.” The Palestinian Chronicle. October 17, 2013. http://www.palestinechronicle.com/even-the-world-bank-understandspalestine-is-being-disappeared/#.UoOo8znA5Hx (accessed November 13, 2013).

Cook, Jonathan. “Talking Nonsense about Apartheid: How Come Uri Avnery Knows So Little about Israel?” The Palestinian Chronicle. October 28, 2013. http://www.palestinechronicle.com/talking-nonsenseabout-apartheid-how-come-uri-avnery-knows-so-little-about-israel/#.Un5rBTnA5Hw (accessed November 13, 2013).

Cook, Jonathan. “Whatever Happened to Peace Talks? Israel Gets Building While Negotiations Go Nowhere.” The Palestinian Chronicle. October 31, 2013. http://www.palestinechronicle.com/whatever-happenedto-peace-talks-israel-gets-building-while-negotiations-go-nowhere/#.UoOnYjnA5Hx (accessed November 13, 2013).

Cotto, Joseph. “Israel and the Dangers of Ethnic Nationalism: An Interview with Jonathan Cook.” The Palestinian Chronicle. November 7, 2013. http://www.palestinechronicle.com/israel-and-the-dangers-ofethnic-nationalism-an-interview-with-jonathan-cook/#.UoOm_jnA5Hx (accessed November 13).

Forer, Richard. “A Jewish journey towards compassion in Israel-Palestine.” Ma’an News Agency. October 8, 2013. http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=636825 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Gordon, Neve. “High Court Rules: It is Impossible to Be Israeli.” The Palestinian Chronicle. October 21, 2013. http://www.palestinechronicle.com/high-court-rules-it-is-impossible-to-be-israeli/#.UoOouTnA5Hx (accessed November 13, 2013).

Hassan, Youssef Budour. “Israel’s killing of five young Palestinians exposes ‘peace’ talks as charade.” The Electronic Intifada. September 24, 2013. http://electronicintifada.net/content/israels-killing-five-youngpalestinians-exposes-peace-talks-charade/12797 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Hassan, Youssef Budour. “The second intifada put holes in Israel’s wall of fear.” The Electronic Intifada. October 4, 2013. http://electronicintifada.net/content/second-intifada-put-holes-israels-wall-fear/12826 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Kassis, Rifat Odeh. “Equal laws, discriminatory practice: the plight of Jerusalem children.” Ma’an News Agency. October 29, 2013. http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=642347 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Khalilieh, Suhail. “20 years of Oslo: Maybe the best thing to happen to Palestinians.” Ma’an News Agency. September 18, 2013. http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=631016 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Kuttab, Daoud. “Netanyahu attacks Iran rather than face the Palestinian issue.” Ma’an News Agency. October 3, 2013. http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=635574 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Kuttab, Daoud. “Jerusalem elections boycott sends ‘strong’ statement to Israel.” Ma’an News Agency. October 25, 2013. http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=641102 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Lahham, Nasser. “Editorial: Oslo is dead, long live Palestine.” Ma’an News Agency. September 14, 2013. http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=629718 (accessed November 13).

Louis, Zarah. “Containment of Holocaust Education: Lessons Unlearned.” The Palestinian Chronicle. October 25, 2013. http://www.palestinechronicle.com/containment-of-holocaust-education-lessons-unlearned/#. UoOoTznA5Hx (accessed November 13, 2013).

Nadim, Nashef. “Palestinian youth assert right of return with direct action.” The Electronic Intifada. September 11, 2013. http://electronicintifada.net/content/israeli-occupation-leaves-psychological-not-just-physical-scars/12759 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Nasser, Nicola. “Drying up Ideological Wellsprings of Arab-Israeli Conflict.” The Palestinian Chronicle. October 30, 2013. http://www.palestinechronicle.com/drying-up-ideological-wellsprings-of-arab-israeli-conflict/#. UoOnyznA5Hx (accessed November 13, 2013).

Qumsiyeh, Mazin. “Palestinians do have options for change and resistance.” Ma’an News Agency. October 6, 2013. http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=636397 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Pappe, Iian. “Reclaiming Judaism from Zionism.” The Electronic Intifada. October 18, 2013. http://electronicintifada.net/content/reclaiming-judaism-zionism/12859 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Persson, Anders. “New EU settlements guidelines already biting.” Ma’an News Agency. September 10, 2013. http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=637350 (accessed November 13).

Sheen, David. “Video: Israeli crowd cheers as Africans called ‘slaves.’” The Electronic Intifada. October 8, 2013. http://electronicintifada.net/content/video-israeli-crowd-cheers-africans-called-slaves/12833 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Strickland, Patrick O. “We’ll never forget October 1956 massacre, say Palestinians in Israel.” The Electronic Intifada. October 29, 2013. http://electronicintifada.net/content/well-never-forget-october-1956-massacre-say-palestinians-israel/12883 (accessed November 13).

Strickland, Patrick O. “Palestinian lawyer faces Israeli jail for ‘organizing demonstrations.’” The Electronic Intifada. October 31, 2013. http://electronicintifada.net/content/palestinian-lawyer-faces-israeli-jailorganizing-demonstrations/12886 (accessed November 13, 2013).

Vlazna, Vacy. “The Gatekeepers: Locking in Palestinians as Terrorists.” The Palestinian Chronicle. October 4, 2013. http://www.palestinechronicle.com/the-gatekeepers-locking-in-palestinians-as-terrorists/#. UoOpdDnA5Hx (accessed November 13, 2013).

Vlazna, Vacy. “Israelis Turning Blood into Money: The Lab Review.” The Palestinian Chronicle. October 16, 2013. http://www.palestinechronicle.com/israelis-turning-blood-into-money-the-lab-review/#.UoOpNDnA5Hx (accessed November 13, 2013).

Whitbeck, John V. “Palestine: Give Democracy A Chance.” The Palestinian Chronicle. September 24, 2013. http://www.palestinechronicle.com/palestine-give-democracy-a-chance/#.UoOp8jnA5Hx


Endnotes

  1. David Shipler, Arab and Jew: Wounded Spirits in a Promised Land (London: Times Books, 1986), 166.
  2. Ibid., 165-166.
  3. Ibid., 184.
  4. Ibid., 186.
  5. Ibid., 187.
  6. Mohammed Daraghmeh, “Effects of the Conflict on the Palestinian Media,” Palestine-Israel Journal Of Politics, Economics & Culture 10.2 (June 2003).
  7. Timothy Siedel, “Development, Religion, and Modernity in Palestine-Israel Development, Religion, and Modernity in Palestine-Israel,” Cross Currents 62.4 (December 2012): 424-441.
  8. Shipler, Arab and Jew, 232.
  9. Ibid., 233.
  10. Ibid., 231.
  11. "Can Muslims Accept Israel in Their Midst?" American Foreign Policy Interests 33.4 (July 2011): 178-184.
  12. Shipler, Arab and Jew, 165-231.
  13. Ala Qeimari, “Israeli Media: Serving the ‘Patriotic’ Cause,” Palestine-Israel Journal Of Politics, Economics & Culture 10.2 (June 2003): 23.
  14. Shipler, Arab and Jew, 228.
  15. Ibid., 170.
  16. Anat First, “Are They Still the Enemy? The Representation of Arabs in Israeli Television News,” in Jews, Muslims and Mass Media: Mediating the ‘Other,’ ed. Tudor Parfitt with Yulia Egorova, (New York, 2004), 190..
  17. B. Anderson, Imagined Communities (London: Verso, 1991).
  18. First, Are They Still the Enemy?, 190.
  19. Stuart Hall, “The Spectacle of the ‘Other,’” in Representation: Cultural Representation and Signifying Practices, ed. Stuart Hall (London: Sage Publications, 1994), 267.
  20. Ibid.
  21. Melanie Suchet, “Face to Face,” Psychoanalytic Dialogues 20.2 (March 2010): 158-171.
  22. Richard Landes, “Edward Said and the Culture of Honour and Shame: Orientalism and Our Misperceptions of the Arab-Israeli Conflict,” Israel Affairs 13.4 (October 2007): 844-858.
  23. Ibid.
  24. Suchet, “Face to Face,” 164.
  25. Ibid., 165.
  26. Ibid., 164.
  27. H. Lindholm-Schulz, The Palestinian diaspora: formation of identities and politics of homeland (London:Routledge, 2003).
  28. Beverley Butler,”’Othering’ the archive - from exile to inclusion and heritage dignity: the case of Palestinian archival memory,” Archival Science 9.1 (2009), p. 64.
  29. Ibid., 60.
  30. Ibid., 61.
  31. Ariella Azoulay, Aliniut mekhonenet 1947-1950: Geneologiyah hazulit shelmishtar ve-kafikhat ha-ason le- ”ason mi-nekudat mabatam” (Tel Aviv, 2009).
  32. Cohen, Adoni, Bantz, Social Conflicts and Television News; A.A. Cohen, G. Wolfsfeld, Framing Intifada: People and Media, Norwood, NJ, 1993; Liebes, Reporting the Arab-Iraeli Conflict; Wolfsfeld, Media and Political Conflict.
  33. E. Avraham, Media and Social Construction of Reality: The Coverage of Settlements in Marginal Areas in National Newspapers, Thesis accepted for the Doctor of Philosophy degree (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1998).
  34. Robert M. Entman, “Framing Bias: Media in the Distribution of Power.” Journal Of Communication 57.1 (March 2007): 163-173.
  35. First, “Are They Still the Enemy?,” 209.
  36. Gaye Tuchman, Making News: A Study in the Construction of Reality (New York: Free Press, 1978), 193.
  37. Neve Gordon, “A Villa in the Jungle: The Arab Awakening through the Lens of the Israeli Media,” Middle East Law & Governance (February 2011): 105-117.
  38. Shamir Herzog, ‘Negotiated Society? Media Discourse on Israeli Jewish/Arab Relations’ Israel Social Science Review, 9.18 (1994) 55-88.
  39. First, “Are They Still the Enemy?” 195.
  40. Matt Evans, “Framing International Conflicts: Media coverage of fighting in the Middle East,” International Journal Of Media & Cultural Politics 6.2 (September 2010): 209-233.
  41. Ibid.
  42. Jeremy Ginges, et al. “Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents,” Journal Of Research On Adolescence (Wiley-Blackwell) 22.3 (September 2012): 556-570.
  43. Ibid., 560.
  44. “About Electronic Intifada,” Electronic Intifada About Page, http://electronicintifada.net/about-ei (November 7, 2013).
  45. WM. David Sloan, and Lisa Mullikan Parcell, Media Bias: Finding It, Fixing It, (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2002), 14.
  46. Ibid.
  47. Gil Ronen, “Report: Hamas and Fatah ‘Agree on Unity,’ Israel National News, http://www.israelnationalnews. com/News/News.aspx/175248#.UrIF2TnA5Hy (December 17, 2013).
  48. “About Us Ma’an News Agency,” Ma’an News Agency About Us Page. http://www.maannews.net/eng/View-Content.aspx?PAGE=AboutUs (November 7, 2013).
  49. “Danida,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs Denmark, http://ramallah.um.dk/en/danida-en/ (December 18, 2013).
  50. “About Palestinian Chronicle,” The Palestinian Chronicle About Page, http://www.palestinechronicle.com/about/ (November 7, 2013).
  51. Ibid.
  52. Ibid.
  53. Siedel, “Development, Religion, and Modernity,” 424-441.
  54. Jonathan Cook, “Whatever Happened to Peace Talks? Israel Gets Building While Negotiations Go Nowhere,” The Palestinian Chronicle, October 31, 2013.
  55. Rifat Odeh Kassis, “Equal laws, discriminatory practice: the plight of Jerusalem children,” Ma’an News Agency, October 29, 2013.
  56. Joseph Cotto,“Israel and the Dangers of Ethnic Nationalism: An Interview with Jonathan Cook,” The Palestinian Chronicle, November 7, 2013.
  57. Alia Al Ghussain, “Israeli occupation leaves psychological not just physical scars,” The Electronic Intifada, September 11, 2013.
  58. Jonathan Cook, “Talking Nonsense about Apartheid: How Come Uri Avnery Knows So Little about Israel?” The Palestinian Chronicle, October 28, 2013.
  59. Vacy Vlazna, “The Gatekeepers: Locking in Palestinians as Terrorists,” The Palestinian Chronicle, October 4, 2013.
  60. Nicola Nasser, “Drying up Ideological Wellsprings of Arab-Israeli Conflict,” The Palestinian Chronicle, October 30, 2013.
  61. Vacy Vlazna, “Israelis Turning Blood into Money: The Lab Review,” The Palestinian Chronicle, October 16, 2013.
  62. Iian Pappe, “Reclaiming Judaism from Zionism,” The Electronic Intifada, October 18, 2013.
  63. Dylan Collins, “Six-year-old loses eye from bullets Israel promised to phase out,” The Electronic Intifada, October 7, 2013.
  64. S. Hall, ‘The Spectacle of the “Other”’ in S. Hall, ed., Representation, p. 257
  65. Rifat Odeh Kassis, “Equal laws, discriminatory practice: the plight of Jerusalem children,” Ma’an News Agency, October 29, 2013.
  66. Ramzy Baroud, “Ramallah, Gaza and the Palestinian identity crisis,” Ma’an News Agency, September 14, 2013.
  67. Al-Shabaka, “Analysis: Can Oslo’s failed aid model be laid to rest?” Ma’an News Agency, November 2, 2013.
  68. Shipler, Arab and Jew, 166.
  69. David Sheen, “Video: Israeli crowd cheers as Africans called ‘slaves,’” The Electronic Intifada, October 8, 2013.
  70. Alia Al Ghussain, “Israeli occupation leaves psychological not just physical scars,” The Electronic Intifada, September 11, 2013.
  71. Vacy Vlazna, “The Gatekeepers: Locking in Palestinians as Terrorists,” The Palestinian Chronicle, October 4, 2013.

Suggested Reading from Inquiries Journal

The level of displacement surrounding the Israel-Palestinian conflict is astounding. At this point there are over nine million Palestinian refugees scattered throughout the globe (King-Irani 924,). Arguing that their situation is dehumanizing and infringes upon their human rights, Palestinians have consistently demanded the right of return as a prerequisite for peace negotiations (Tovy 40... MORE»
Advertisement
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a perplexing problem that weighs heavily on the world. For over seventy-five years, blood has been spilt over a piece of land about the size of New Jersey. Numerous attempts have been made to find peace in what is referred to as the Holy Land. Unfortunately, each plan has failed miserably. What is needed now is a fresh examination of the circumstances. Divergent ideas need to be brought to the table for examination... MORE»
Rimaz Kasabreh is Palestinian. Because of her Israeli-issued green identification card, she is considered a legal resident of the West Bank but an illegal immigration within nearby East Jerusalem – the historically Palestinian-controlled half of Jerusalem until its annexation from Jordan following the Six Day War in 1967.... MORE»
This ongoing dispute clearly concerns the United States, the long-term third party in peace negotiations, and a close ally of Israel. However, now more than ever European and Middle Eastern states are invested in the resolution of this conflict. The stability of Israel and the humanitarian status of the Palestinians depend upon... MORE»
Submit to Inquiries Journal, Get a Decision in 10-Days

Inquiries Journal provides undergraduate and graduate students around the world a platform for the wide dissemination of academic work over a range of core disciplines.

Representing the work of students from hundreds of institutions around the globe, Inquiries Journal's large database of academic articles is completely free. Learn more | Blog | Submit

Follow SP

Latest in Business & Communications

2016, Vol. 8 No. 11
In its beta release, Google Glass was positioned as a groundbreaking technology - a glimpse into a future that has long been promised in science fiction. It was met with media fanfare and consumer interest, despite costing more than most PCs on... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 7 No. 1
Predicting the future of the news industry begins with understanding the history of newspapers and the current news delivery landscape. Because the Internet has brought fundamental shifts to news distribution, successful organizations of the future... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 7 No. 1
Instagram allows users to share a snapshot of their lives with a mass audience in a matter of seconds. This capability and power has not gone unnoticed by celebrities, who are highly aware of the impact their social media accounts have on fans and... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 7 No. 1
Since its development, YouTube, the world's third most popular online destination, has transformed from a video-sharing site into a job opportunity for content creators in both new and mainstream media. Based on content analysis, the study examined... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 7 No. 1
Today, more than 15 million Americans practice yoga, making the ancient Indian discipline synonymous with the Western society's culture of wellness. As a way to market themselves, practitioners and instructors of yoga have utilized Instagram &ndash... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 7 No. 1
In 2014, Greenpeace launched an attack on a 50-year brand partnership between Danish toy company LEGO and Royal Dutch Shell, an oil and gas corporation. Through the analysis of Greenpeace's campaign and LEGO's responses over a three-month period... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 7 No. 1
Fun. Creative. Engaging. These adjectives may come to mind when thinking of the best places to work. But what makes a company culture successful? This study evaluated internal communications in companies deemed "Best Places to Work" by the Triangle... Read Article »

What are you looking for?

FROM OUR BLOG

How to Use Regression Analysis Effectively
How to Read for Grad School
Finding Balance in Graduate School