Sleep Quality Among University Students: Evaluating the Impact of Smoking, Social Media Use, and Energy Drink Consumption on Sleep Quality and Anxiety

By Omar Afandi Et. Al.
2013, Vol. 5 No. 06 | pg. 2/3 |

Materials and Methods

A cross sectional survey was done among 290 university students of different majors in American University of Sharjah and Gulf Medical University, Ajman in the UAE from September 2011 to March 2012

Data was collected using a standardized, pre-tested questionnaire.Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The PSQI is a reliable instrument to quantify sleep quality during the previous month. It consists of 19 self-rated questions and five questions related by the bed partner or roommate (if one is available).

Only self-rated questions are included in the scoring. The 19 self-rated items are combined to form seven “component” scores, each of which has a range of 0-3 points. In all cases “0” indicates no difficulty, while a score of “3” indicates severe difficulty.

The sum of scores for these seven component yields one global score, with a range of 0-21 points, “0” indicating no difficulty and “21” indicating severe difficulties in all areas.

The seven components of the PSQI are standardized versions of areas routinely assessed in clinical interviews of patients with sleep/wake complaints.

These components are: Subjective sleep qualities, Sleep onset latency, Sleep duration, Habitual sleep efficiency, Sleep disturbances, Use of sleeping medication, Daytime dysfunction.

The questionnaire included demographic characteristics which include age, gender, weight and height, study major. Subjects were asked to estimate their weight and height to determine their body mass index (BMI). Questions about smoking, stimulant drink, exercise, and social networking too were asked. Questions were also asked on the consequences of sleep deprivation such as missing morning classes due to oversleep, having a car 'near' accident due to not sleeping well, and feeling anxious due to not sleeping well.

Data was collected after the approval from the Research Committee of the GulfMedicalUniversity.Verbal consent was taken from the students before filling up the questionnaire. Data was analyzed using the SPSS-19. 'Chi- square' test was done to examine differences between categorized variables and ‘t- test' was done to compare the mean scores.

Results

The study subjects comprised 298 participants of whom 64% were females, 36% males. The ages ranged from seventeen to twenty nine years.

Table 1. Sleep Quality among different universities, age groups, and gender

 

Good sleep

Bad sleep

Total

 

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

p value

UNIVERSITY

GMU

38.0

31.1

84.0

68.9

122.0

100.0

0.350

AUS

57.0

33.9

111.0

66.1

168.0

100.0

Total

95.0

32.8

195.0

67.2

290.0

100.0

GENDER

Male

36.0

34.3

69.0

65.7

105.0

100.0

0.380

Female

59.0

31.9

126.0

68.1

185.0

100.0

Total

95.0

32.8

195.0

67.2

290.0

100.0

AGE

19 and younger

26.0

33.8

51.0

66.2

77.0

100.0

 

20-23

48.0

28.7

119.0

71.3

167.0

100.0

0.090

24 and older

21.0

45.7

25.0

54.3

46.0

100.0

Total

95.0

32.8

195.0

67.2

290.0

100.0

Table 1 shows that there is no significantdifference between males and femalesin their Sleep Quality. Nevertheless, both the genders had many individuals with sleeping problems. Studentsabove 24 years of age seem to have the least sleeping disturbances. More people within the 20-23 age groups suffer from sleep disturbances than in the other age groups, while it is almost equal between the two genders among teenagers.

Table 2. Sleep quality in the study subjects

Sleep Quality

Frequency

Percent

Good sleep

95

32.8

Bad sleep

195

67.2

Total

290

100.0

Overall the sleep quality for the entire group was bad, as seen in Table 2

Table 3. Sleep Quality among smokers and duration of social networking

 

Good Sleep Quality

Bad Sleep Quality

P Value

 

%

No.

%

No

 

SMOKING

N=289

Yes

15

25.4

74.6

79

0.192

No

44

34.3

65.7

151

Total

94

32.5

67.5

195

SOCIAL NETWORKING

N=290

None

7

50.0

50.0

7

0.242

<30 minutes

25

30.1

69.9

58

1-2 hours

28

28.0

72.0

72

>2 hours

35

37.6

62.4

58

Total

95

32.8

67.2

195

STIMULANT DRINKING

N=288

Yes

46

28.6

71.4

47

0.128

No

115

37.0

63.0

80

Total

93

32.3

67.7

195

Although there wasa higher percentage of smokers having sleeping disturbances when compared to non-smokers, the results were not significant.

There is a noticeable increase in the percentage of users of social networking sites and energy drink users having sleep disturbances. However the result is not statistically significant.

Table 4. Sleep Quality among students with classes missed, sleeping during classes, car accidents, feeling anxious

 

Good Sleep Quality

Bad Sleep Quality

P value

 

No.

%

No.

%

 

Classes Missed

N=286

0.014

None

58

61.7

80

41.7

1-2

15

16.0

55

28.6

3-5

10

10.6

26

13.5

>5

11

11.7

31

16.1

Total

94

100

192

100

Classes Slept in

N=286

0.017

Yes

27

29.0

84

43.8

No

66

71.0

108

56.3

Total

93

100

192

100

Car Accidents

N=283

0.079

Yes

10

10.8

36

16.3

No

83

89.2

154

81.1

Total

93

100

190

100

Feeling Anxious

N=284

0.001

Yes

32

34.8

121

63.0

No

60

65.2

71

37.0

Total

92

100

192

100

Table 4 shows thatmost of the students who never missed any morning classes, or never slept during classes have significantly good sleep quality.

A significant proportion of students who have had bad sleep quality felt anxious during the day(Chi square test p=0.001).

Suggested Reading from Inquiries Journal

Today, an overwhelming majority of high school students are not getting enough sleep. This lack of sleep is a serious problem, especially as students are doing more than ever with their time. They come to school early, spend hours listening to teachers and taking tests, then run off to practices and meetings, and come home to be faced with even more work. And the homework load these days is not light; teachers assign hours worth of homework each... MORE»
Advertisement
Melatonin is a lipophilic, indolic-structured compound found ubiquitously in nature. This ubiquity suggests that such an evolutionarily conserved molecule participates in phylogenetically primordial signalling mechanisms... MORE»
Renewable energy sources, which are expected to be a promising alternative energy source, can bring new challenges when connected to the power grid. However, the generated power from renewable energy source is always fluctuating due to environmental conditions. In the same way, wind power injection into an electric grid affects the power quality due to the fluctuation nature of the wind and the comparatively new types of its generators. On the basis... MORE»
The objective of this paper is to propose a novel multi-input power converter for the grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system in order to simplify the power system and reduce the cost. The proposed multi-input power converter consists of a Cuk fused multi-input dc–dc converter and a fullbridge dc–ac inverter. The incremental conductance (IncCond) method is mainly used to... MORE»
Submit to Inquiries Journal, Get a Decision in 10-Days

Inquiries Journal provides undergraduate and graduate students around the world a platform for the wide dissemination of academic work over a range of core disciplines.

Representing the work of students from hundreds of institutions around the globe, Inquiries Journal's large database of academic articles is completely free. Learn more | Blog | Submit

Follow SP

Latest in Health Science

2017, Vol. 13 No. 1
Published by Discussions
Causal inference methods were performed on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) clinical datasets. First, relevant patient data were collected and merged. Then, an algorithm was used to create a causal directed acyclic graph (DAG). Next, the Iterative... Read Article »
2012, Vol. 1 No. 1
Published by Clocks and Clouds
This paper examines explanations for the current HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Deep South United States. The first set of explanations is categorized as social determinants of health and includes social and economic factors that influence public health... Read Article »
2017, Vol. 9 No. 03
This article argues that performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) ought to be allowed across all elite sporting competitions for athletes over the age of 16 so long as consuming them does not pose a significant risk to their health. I begin with a brief... Read Article »
2015, Vol. 6 No. 1
Published by Clocks and Clouds
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has ravaged sub-Saharan Africa in the decades since its first recorded case. The disease has reached epidemic levels in many regions, with millions of new cases diagnosed each year. This paper examines... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 6 No. 1
A study in May 2014 analyzed food labels in Quito, Ecuador, to better understand the culture's nutritional communication. The study explored what is considered to be a healthy diet in Ecuadorian culture and how this is communicated, and also to... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 8 No. 10
The present study provided a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized control trials involving the effectiveness of various rehabilitation methods that have been implemented for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction... Read Article »
2016, Vol. 12 No. 2
Published by Discussions
This comparative analysis of U.S. and U.K. healthcare systems pinpoints inequalities in health outcomes and recommends policies to alleviate disparities. Mortality data from the CDC'S WONDER Database and Cancer Research U.K. were used to analyze... Read Article »

What are you looking for?

FROM OUR BLOG

5 Tips for Publishing Your First Academic Article
How to Select a Graduate Research Advisor
How to Read for Grad School