A Rhetorical Examination of the Product Keynotes of Steve Jobs

By Alexander E. Hopkins
2012, Vol. 4 No. 09 | pg. 9/9 |

This campaign, which depicted several famous figures such as Albert Einstein and Amelia Earhart, conveyed the message that these pioneers became famous because their respective ideologies broke the status-quo. In Einstein’s case, he broke the status-quo by developing a completely-original theory that started a revolution in physics. In Earhart’s case, she set world-records for airplane flights during a time when women were outnumbered by men in the aviation industry.

In a sense, the “Think Different” advertising campaign ideologically-manifested itself within Jobs. When he returned to Apple in 1997, most were surprised because his 1985 firing seemed to be the end of his career. Even though Jobs founded NeXT after being fired, that company’s success never matched the popularity or functionality of Apple’s products. However, it was Jobs’ refusal to give up—his ability to “think different” when few had hopes in him—that allowed him to become a stronger leader. As Professor Benjamin Zeller writes for the University of Chicago’s Divinity School (2011): “In Apple's words, the company represents ‘the crazy ones, the rebels, the troublemakers.’ These are powerful ways of defining oneself, particularly within individualistic American culture. The religion of Apple becomes a symbol of such individualistic self-expression and rugged idealism.”

As Jobs led Apple for the majority of the company’s existence until 2011, computing technology accelerated and became more advanced annually. Beyond the keynote, Jobs would appear on television, as well as draft press releases. Beyond these traditional forms of media, newer technological forums emerged as well. During Jobs’ second tenure, the internet gained popularity worldwide, allowing him to reach out to a global audience by posting key points of his message on Apple’s website.

As previously covered, Jobs described his products in “layman’s language” or in “plain English.” In other words, he always avoided technical jargon when it was not necessary to be included in his speech. He even admitted this in one of his keynotes when he remarked, “We don't stand a chance of advertising with features and benefits and with RAMS and with charts and comparisons” (Beahm, 23). The Apple website accomplished this goal by explaining electronics specifications in an appealingly simple way.

When viewing the current webpage for Apple’s MacBook Pro, the specifications are only present in a separate tab, as well as at the online checkout screen. Unless one clicks the separate tab or buys a Mac online, a consumer will likely not see any specifications whatsoever.

At the end of the day, Jobs’ keynote rhetoric was integral to Apple’s success, especially during the “second renaissance” of Jobs’ 1997-2011 tenure as Apple’s CEO. Jobs acted as the “face” of Apple, a fact that has become magnified since Jobs’ passing. In addition to dressing like the anti-CEO, he used plain language instead of jargon to enthusiastically pitch his products to consumers. Each keynote introduced a new product, whether the product was completely-new or an update from an existing product. In order to make his keynotes memorable, each keynote had a distinct theme that blended-well with the product that Jobs was introducing. The theme was strategically-timed, especially when Jobs cited sales milestones in his keynotes.


Each product was ground-breaking, at least in Jobs’ eyes. Whether or not the product was entering into an existing market, Jobs convinced his audience that the product was a glimpse into the future. Often, it was not uncommon for Apple to face competition in a product category prior to releasing a new product. What often followed was that Apple would be competing with less-expensive products that sometimes had a larger variety of features. In order to tackle this challenge, Jobs accentuated the device’s functionality and style. When demonstrating the product, he personified the typical consumer, often visually-magnifying the demonstration using informational keynote slides. Even when he was finished delivering his keynote, the keynote was only the beginning of Jobs’ message. Media outlets, such as Apple’s public relations department and online retail store, cemented the message that Jobs delivered.

In some ways, Jobs’ keynotes have become more important after his death because we can no longer take them for granted. Apple fans can no longer rush to their computers to read news of the latest product pitched by Steve Jobs. However, Jobs left the world a rhetorical legacy that is sure to influence computer engineers, marketing analysts, and rhetoricians alike. An Apple TV commercial from September 29, 1997 summed-up the influence of Steve Jobs since his passing: “Here’s to the crazy ones, the misfits, the rebels, the troublemakers, the round pegs in a square hole, the ones who see things differently. They’re not fond of rules, and they have no respect for the status quo. You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them. About the only thing you can't do is ignore them, because they change things. They push the human race forward, and while some may see them as the crazy ones, we see genius, because the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world, are the ones who’ll do it” (Lam, 243).


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Apple Press Info. (2005). NBC Universal & Apple Offer New Primetime, Cable, Late-Night & Classic TV Shows on the iTunes Music Store iTunes Music Store Video Downloads Top Three Million. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2005/12/06NBC-Universal-Apple-Offer-New-Primetime-Cable-Late-Night-Classic-TV-Shows-on-the-iTunes-Music-Store.html.

Apple Press Info. (2006). Apple Announces iPod Nano (PRODUCT) RED Special Edition Portion of Proceeds Contributed to The Global Fund to Fight AIDS. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2006/10/13Apple-Announces-iPod-nano-PRODUCT-RED-Special-Edition.html.

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Apple Press Info. (2006). Apple Introduces the New iPod Nano World’s Most Popular Digital Music Player Features New Aluminum Design in Five Colors & 24 Hour Battery Life.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2006/09/12Apple-Introduces-the-New-iPod-nano.html.

Apple Press Info. (2006). Columbia Records & Apple Offer Exclusive Digital Pre-Order of Bob Dylan’s New Album ‘Modern Times’ & Advance Ticket Pre-Sale for Upcoming Concert Tour Bob Dylan Digital Box Set ‘The Collection’ Available Exclusively on iTunes. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2006/08/08Columbia-Records-Apple-Offer-Exclusive-Digital-Pre-Order-of-Bob-Dylans-New-Album-Modern-Times-Advance-Ticket-Pre-Sale-for-Upcoming-Concert-Tour.html.

Apple Press Info. (2006). Apple Unveils the New iPod shuffle World’s Smallest Digital Music Player is Wearable with Innovative Clip. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2006/09/12Apple-Unveils-the-New-iPod-shuffle.html.

Apple Press Info. (2006). iTunes Music Store Downloads Top One Billion Songs Scholarship at Juilliard School of Music to be Created. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2006/02/23iTunes-Music-Store-Downloads-Top-One-Billion-Songs.html.

Apple Press Info. (2006). Nike and Apple Team Up to Launch Nike iPod Global Collaboration Brings the Worlds of Sports & Music Together Like Never Before.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2006/05/23Nike-and-Apple-Team-Up-to-Launch-Nike-iPod.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). 100 Million iPods Sold. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/04/09100-Million-iPods-Sold.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple and AT&T Announce iTunes Activation and Sync for iPhone Already Familiar to Tens of Millions of iPod Users. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/06/26Apple-and-AT-T-Announce-iTunes-Activation-and-Sync-for-iPhone.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple and Starbucks Announce Music Partnership Wirelessly Find and Buy Music at Starbucks. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/09/05Apple-and-Starbucks-Announce-Music-Partnership.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple Chooses Cingular as Exclusive US Carrier for Its Revolutionary iPhone. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/01/09Apple-Chooses-Cingular-as-Exclusive-US-Carrier-for-Its-Revolutionary-iPhone.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple Introduces All New iPod Nano World’s Most Popular Music Player Now Plays Video.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/09/05Apple-Introduces-All-New-iPod-nano.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple Introduces New iPod classic New 160GB Model Holds Up to 40,000 Songs.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/09/05Apple-Introduces-New-iPod-classic.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple Introduces New iPod Nano Fourth Generation iPod Nano Features Apple’s New Genius Technology. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/09/09Apple-Introduces-New-iPod-nano.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple Launches iTunes Plus Higher Quality DRM-Free Tracks Now Available on the iTunes Store Worldwide.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/05/30Apple-Launches-iTunes-Plus.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple Reinvents the Phone with iPhone.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/01/09Apple-Reinvents-the-Phone-with-iPhone.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple Sells One Millionth iPhone. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/09/10Apple-Sells-One-Millionth-iPhone.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple Sells Two Million Copies of Mac OS X Leopard in First Weekend. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/10/30Apple-Sells-Two-Million-Copies-of-Mac-OS-X-Leopard-in-First-Weekend.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple Sets iPhone Price at $399 for this Holiday Season. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/09/05Apple-Sets-iPhone-Price-at-399-for-this-Holiday-Season.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple TV Coming to Your Living Room Movies, TV Shows, Music & Photos on Your Big Screen TV. Retrieved from   http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/01/09Apple-TV-Coming-to-Your-Living-Room.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple Unveils Higher Quality DRM-Free Music on the iTunes Store DRM-Free Songs from EMI Available on iTunes for $1.29 in May. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/04/02Apple-Unveils-Higher-Quality-DRM-Free-Music-on-the-iTunes-Store.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple Unveils iPod touch Revolutionary Multi-touch Interface & Built- in Wi-Fi Wireless Networking. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/09/05Apple-Unveils-iPod-touch.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple Unveils New iMac All New Line Features Sleek Aluminum 20- and 24-inch Designs. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/08/07Apple-Unveils-New-iMac.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). Apple Unveils the iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store Wireless Music Downloads Directly to iPod touch & iPhone Custom Ringtone Maker Now Built into iTunes.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/09/05Apple-Unveils-the-iTunes-Wi-Fi-Music-Store.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). AT&T and Apple Announce Simple, Affordable Service Plans for iPhone All Plans Include Unlimited Data & Visual Voicemail. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/06/26AT-T-and-Apple-Announce-Simple-Affordable-Service-Plans-for-iPhone.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). iPhone Delivers Up to Eight Hours of Talk Time Now Features Durable Glass Top Surface.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/06/18iPhone-Delivers-Up-to-Eight-Hours-of-Talk-Time.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). iTunes Offers Exclusive Pre-Order of New Paul McCartney Album “Memory Almost Full” Complete Catalog of 25 Solo Albums Coming to iTunes This Month.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/05/15iTunes-Offers-Exclusive-Pre-Order-of-New-Paul-McCartney-Album-Memory-Almost-Full.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). iTunes Store Tops Three Billion Songs. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/07/31iTunes-Store-Tops-Three-Billion-Songs.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007). iTunes Store Tops Two Billion Songs 50 Million TV Shows & Over 1.3 Million Movies Sold. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/01/09iTunes-Store-Tops-Two-Billion-Songs.html.

Apple Press Info. (2007).John Lennon Solo Catalog Debuts on iTunes Store.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/08/14John-Lennon-Solo-Catalog-Debuts-on-iTunes-Store.html.

Apple Press Info. (2008). Apple Announces Major Software Upgrade for iPod touch. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/01/15Apple-Announces-Major-SoftwareUpgrade-for-iPod-touch.html.

Apple Press Info. (2008). Apple Announces Time Capsule Wireless Backup for all Your Macs. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/01/15Apple-Announces-Time-Capsule.html.

Apple Press Info. (2008). Apple Enhances Revolutionary iPhone with Software Update. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/01/15Apple-Enhances-Revolutionary-iPhone-with-Software-Update.html.

Apple Press Info. (2009). Apple Introduces 17-inch MacBook Pro With Revolutionary New Built- in Battery That Delivers Eight Hours of Use & 1,000 Recharges.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2009/01/06Apple-Introduces-17-inch-MacBook-Pro-With-Revolutionary-New-Built-in-Battery-That-Delivers-Eight-Hours-of-Use-1-000-Recharges.html

Apple Press Info. (2008). Apple Introduces MacBook Air—The World’s Thinnest Notebook. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/01/15Apple-Introduces-MacBook-Air-The-Worlds-Thinnest-Notebook.html.

Apple Press Info. (2008). Apple Introduces MobileMe Internet Service Push Email, Push Contacts and Push Calendar for iPhone, iPod touch, Macs and PCs.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/06/09Apple-Introduces-MobileMe-Internet-Service.html.

Apple Press Info. (2008). Apple Introduces New Apple TV Software & Lowers Price to $229 Rent High Definition Movies Directly from Your Widescreen TV. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/01/15Apple-Introduces-New-Apple-TV-Software-Lowers-Price-to-229.html.

Apple Press Info. (2008). Apple Introduces New iPod touch The Funnest iPod Ever—Perfect for Music, Movies & Games. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/09/09Apple-Introduces-New-iPod-touch.html.

Apple Press Info. (2008). Apple Introduces the New iPhone 3G Twice as Fast at Half the Price. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/06/09Apple-Introduces-the-New-iPhone-3G.html.

Apple Press Info. (2008). Apple Sells One Million iPhone 3Gs in First Weekend. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/07/14Apple-Sells-One-Million-iPhone-3Gs-in-First-Weekend.html.

Apple Press Info. (2008). iPhone App Store Downloads Top 10 Million in First Weekend. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/07/14iPhone-App-Store-Downloads-Top-10-Million-in-First-Weekend.html.

Apple Press Info. (2008). iTunes Store Tops Over Five Billion Songs Sold Apple Renting & Selling Over 50,000 Movies Per Day.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/06/19iTunes-Store-Tops-Over-Five-Billion-Songs-Sold.html.

Apple Press Info. (2008). NBC Universal Returns to the iTunes Store All-Star Lineup Includes “Heroes,” “The Office,” “Battlestar Galactica” & “30 Rock” Top Rated NBC Comedies & Dramas Now Available on iTunes in Stunning HD. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/09/09NBC-Universal-Returns-to-the-iTunes-Store.html.

Apple Press Info. (2008). New MacBook Family Redefines Notebook Design Industry’s Greenest Notebooks. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/10/14New-MacBook-Family-Redefines-Notebook-Design.html.

Apple Press Info. (2008). Twentieth Century Fox & Apple Introduce iTunes Digital Copy DVDs Include Free Copy of Movie for iTunes.  Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/01/15Twentieth-Century-Fox-Apple-Introduce-iTunes-Digital-Copy.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Brings FaceTime to the Mac Macs Can Video Call Over 19 Million iPhone 4 & iPod touch Users. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/10/20Apple-Brings-FaceTime-to-the-Mac.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Gives Sneak Peek of Mac OS X Lion.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/10/20Apple-Gives-Sneak-Peek-of-Mac-OS-X-Lion.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Introduces iTunes 10 With Ping Ping Social Music Discovery Now Available to 160 Million iTunes Users in 23 Countries.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/09/01Apple-Introduces-iTunes-10-With-Ping.html.

Apple Press Info. (2009). Apple Introduces New iPod Nano With Built-in Video Camera World’s Most Popular Music Player Now Available in Nine Brilliant Colors. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2009/09/09Apple-Introduces-New-iPod-nano-With-Built-in-Video-Camera.html.

Apple Press Info. (2009). Apple’s App Store Downloads Top 1.5 Billion in First Year More Than 65,000 Apps; Over 100,000 Developers. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2009/07/14Apples-App-Store-Downloads-Top-1-5-Billion-in-First-Year.html.

Apple Press Info. (2009). Apple’s App Store Downloads Top Two Billion More Than 85,000 Apps Now Available for iPhone & iPod touch. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2009/09/28Apples-App-Store-Downloads-Top-Two-Billion.html.

Apple Press Info. (2009). Changes Coming to the iTunes Store. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2009/01/06Changes-Coming-to-the-iTunes-Store.html.

Apple Press Info. (2009). January 5, 2009 Letter from Apple CEO Steve Jobs. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2009/01/05Letter-from-Apple-CEO-Steve-Jobs.html.

Apple Press Info. (2009). January 14, 2009 Apple Media Advisory. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2009/01/14Apple-Media-Advisory.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Introduces New iPod touch Features Retina Display, A4 chip, FaceTime Video Calling, HD Video Recording & Game Center.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/09/01Apple-Introduces-New-iPod-touch.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Launches iPad Magical & Revolutionary Device at an Unbelievable Price. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/01/27Apple-Launches-iPad.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Premieres iTunes 9 Featuring iTunes LP, Home Sharing, Genius Mixes & Improved Syncing.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2009/09/09Apple-Premieres-iTunes-9.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Premieres New Apple TV for Breakthrough Price of $99 Rent Commercial Free HD TV Episodes for Just 99 Cents. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/09/01Apple-Premieres-New-Apple-TV-for-Breakthrough-Price-of-99.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Presents iPhone 4 All-New Design with FaceTime Video Calling, Retina Display, 5 Megapixel Camera & HD Video Recording Thinnest Smartphone Ever. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/06/07Apple-Presents-iPhone-4.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Previews iPhone OS 4 Includes Multitasking, Folders, iBooks, Unified Inbox & More. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/08Apple-Previews-iPhone-OS-4.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Reinvents iPod Nano With Multi-Touch Interface New Built-in Clip for Instant Wearability. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/09/01Apple-Reinvents-iPod-nano-With-Multi-Touch-Interface.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Reinvents Notebooks With New MacBook Air. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/10/20Apple-Reinvents-Notebooks-With-New-MacBook-Air.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Sells One Million iPads. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/05/03Apple-Sells-One-Million-iPads.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05Apple-Sells-Over-300-000-iPads-First-Day.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Sells Three Million iPads in 80 Days. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/06/22Apple-Sells-Three-Million-iPads-in-80-Days.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Sells Two Million iPads in Less Than 60 Days.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/05/31Apple-Sells-Two-Million-iPads-in-Less-Than-60-Days.html

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple to Debut iAds on July 1 Over $60 Million in 2010 Commitments from Leading Global Brands.Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/06/07Apple-to-Debut-iAds-on-July-1.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple Unveils New iPod shuffle World’s Smallest iPod for Just $49. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/09/01Apple-Unveils-New-iPod-shuffle.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple’s App Store Downloads Top Three Billion. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/01/05Apples-App-Store-Downloads-Top-Three-Billion.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). Apple’s iOS 4.2 Available Today for iPad, iPhone & iPod touch Major Software Update Brings Multitasking, Folders, Unified Inbox, Game Center, AirPlay & AirPrint to iPad. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/11/22Apples-iOS-4-2-Available-Today-for-iPad-iPhone-iPod-touch.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). iPad Arrives This Saturday. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/03/29iPad-Arrives-This-Saturday.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). iPad Available in US on April 3 Pre-Order on March 12. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/03/05iPad-Available-in-US-on-April-3.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). iPhone 4 Sales Top 1.7 Million. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/06/28iPhone-4-Sales-Top-1-7-Million.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). iTunes Store Tops 10 Billion Songs Sold. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/02/25iTunes-Store-Tops-10-Billion-Songs-Sold.html.

Apple Press Info. (2010). The Beatles Now on iTunes All 13 Legendary Beatles Studio Albums & Special Digital Box Set. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/11/16The-Beatles-Now-on-iTunes.html.

Apple Press Info. (2011). Apple Introduces iCloud Free Cloud Services Beyond Anything Offered to Date. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/06/06Apple-Introduces-iCloud.html.

Apple Press Info. (2011). Apple Introduces iOS 4.3 Update Includes Faster Safari Performance, iTunes Home Sharing, AirPlay Improvements & New Personal Hotspot. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/03/02Apple-Introduces-iOS-4-3.html.

Apple Press Info. (2011). Apple Launches iPad 2 All New Design is Thinner, Lighter & Faster with FaceTime, Smart Covers & 10 Hour Battery. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/03/02Apple-Launches-iPad-2.html.

Apple Press Info. (2011). Apple Launches Subscriptions on the App Store. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/02/15Apple-Launches-Subscriptions-on-the-App-Store.html.

Apple Press Info. (2011). Apple’s Mac App Store Opens for Business. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/01/06Apples-Mac-App-Store-Opens-for-Business.html.

Apple Press Info. (2011). Apple’s Mac App Store to Open on January 6. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/12/16Apples-Mac-App-Store-to-Open-on-January-6.html.

Apple Press Info. (2011). August 24, 2011 Letter from Steve Jobs. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/08/24Letter-from-Steve-Jobs.html.

Apple Press Info. (2011). iPad 2 Arrives in 25 More Countries This Friday Available in Hong Kong, Korea & Singapore in April. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/03/22iPad-2-Arrives-in-25-More-Countries-This-Friday.html.

Apple Press Info. (2011). January 17, 2011 Apple Media Advisory. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/01/17Apple-Media-Advisory.html.

Apple Press Info. (2011). Mac App Store Downloads Top One Million in First Day. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/01/07Mac-App-Store-Downloads-Top-One-Million-in-First-Day.html.

Apple Press Info. (2011). New Version of iOS Includes Notification Center, iMessage, Newsstand, Twitter Integration Among 200 New Features Available to iPhone, iPad & iPod touch Users This Fall. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/06/06New-Version-of-iOS-Includes-Notification-Center-iMessage-Newsstand-Twitter-Integration-Among-200-New-Features.html.

Apple Press Info. (2011). October 5, 2011 Apple Media Advisory. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/10/05Apple-Media-Advisory.html.

Apple Press Info. (2011). October 5, 2011 Statement by Apple’s Board of Directors. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/10/05Statement-by-Apples-Board-of-Directors.html.

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