On Understanding Abstract Portraits: Applying Cognitive Semiotics and Psychophysiological Symbolism

By William E. Wenger
2014, Vol. 6 No. 11 | pg. 3/3 |

Instead, the portrait communicates through extrinsic symbolism, we might link the long, willowy form of the torso with grace and patience, the curvature of the leaf-hair and torso forms with the physiology of maternal caregivers. These inferences of association are based upon sociocultural context and framing as much as they are personal experience. Referring again to “Puzzles,” note also that Gilot's head, originally planed as a long oval shape, was instead spontaneously turned on its axis as a wide blue paper oval impressed upon the canvas. This aids in the Picasso's expressive representation of Gilot's personality by introducing the semiotic properties of that shape and color.

These interpretations are subjective, but the tools which the artist intentionally (if not necessarily deliberately) gives to us in order to come to these interpretations are the focus of this essay.

Psychophysiological Symbolism allows us to analogously give expressive content to formal elements of artworks as displays, in addition to direct human behavioral displays. This is achieved through a chain of cognitively and socially ascribed associations; first between physiological display-aspects and felt-emotion, and then between the relevant instance of Psychophysiological Symbolism and certain formal content elements observed in the artwork.

So, in terms of the medium and creative communication, in encountering an abstract portrait we draw parallels between the certain formal content elements and Psychophysiological Symbolism so as to see such points of content as emotionally expressive – and thus representative of various personality traits and characteristics of the portrait's subject. Psychophysiological Symbolism, as a principle, makes light of how we abstractly express emotion and the ways in which we read into, and bring our socioemotional Selves into perceiving such abstract expressive displays within an artistic encounter.

Going beyond its instrumental use as a frame for systems of symbolic communication, it also functions as a set of learned sociocultural idea-structures that condition and inform our seemingly-innate concepts and means of emotional expression insofar as Psychophysiological Symbolism stands as an integrated part of the sociocultural context which shapes our socioemotional Selves. Through this, the Self contributes to how we perceive content as expressive, made emotionally relevant to us and our subjective experiences – communicated qua how extrinsic symbolism, as a part of our sociocultural developmental context, serves as a more lucid communicative framework thanks to the artist's work with the medium.

Thus, this essay argues that the interpretation of certain artworks, specifically abstract portraits, is a profoundly social-psychological phenomenon, a dialogue - as asserted by Carroll's quote at the beginning of this essay - an emotional discourse. Rather than regarding the phrase “emotional discourse” as mere analogy this essay asserts that it indeed refers to a particular discursive structure through which communication and meaning-making occurs, by way of artistic expression, recognition, and interpretation.

According to Foucault: “any act of representation involves three positions that human beings may occupy...the representer...the represented...and the representee...in seeing the representation the representee is also a subject.” (1970) Knowing this, we can understand artist and audience as mutually made subject to one another under the emotional discourse. The networks of extrinsically symbolized associative aspects are directly influenced by one's sociocultural developmental context and comprise the language of this proposed discursive structure.

It follows that the ways in which associative aspects are cognitively accessed and reorganized into novel relations of signifiers and the signified to form meaningful idea-structures about the artwork's content are largely dependent on our ability to approach the portrait as a social stimulus.

It has been expressed that viewers, in their interpretation of a piece, bring meaning into an artwork that an artist did not originally intend for the work (Nathan 2005). Artworks, understood as catalysts of creative social interaction, rather than linear one-way displays, are grounded in the intentions of the artists, according to Dilworth, and may act as a guide for a viewer’s interpretation of a work as an appraisal is constructed in response to the interaction.

Therefore, a viewer’s ascription of meaning to the display that the artist did not intend is actually an extension of the viewer’s response-appraisal, a veiled expression of his Self in response to the work, informed by but conceptually separate from the artwork itself – hence the emotional discourse. This is the perpetuation of instances of dialogue, as proposed by Carroll at the beginning of this essay.

The presence of self and other; a framed concept of the artist, peers to whom our reactionary dialogue takes place, and most importantly, the depicted subject of the portrait, as recognized by the viewer; all of these are integral to the aesthetic experience and cognitive value of the artistic encounter. Further, we can assert Dilworth's argument that “expressiveness” can never be the sole property of an artwork, but support this claim by understanding it as a product of the discourse which occurs through and around that artwork, as we have done using abstract portraits as an example.

Artist, subject matter, and audience are made subject to one another in this discursive structure, through which socioemotional selves communicate and meaning is constructed. It is on these grounds that we may approach abstract portraits as social experience, and better understand the cognitive, emotional, and social mechanics behind them.


References

Carroll, N. (1992). “Art, Intention, and Conversation.” In G. Iseminger (ed.), “Intention and Interpretation” pp. 98-122. Philadelphia Temple University Press.

Bois, S. (1966) “The Art of Awareness.” pp. 12-41 W.C. Brown Co.

Nathan, D. (2006) “Art, Meaning, and Artist’s Meaning.” In M. Kieran (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art. pp. 282-293 Blackwell Publishing ltd.

Fridlund, A. Duchaine, B. (1994) “Facial Expressions of Emotion and the Delusion of the Hermetic Self.” In Parrot, G. Harre, R. (ed.), “The Emotions; Social, Cultural, and Biological Dimensions.” pp. 259-284(2005)

Carroll, N. (2010) “Movies, the Moral Emotions, and Sympathy.” Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Parrot, G. Harre, R. (1996) “Some Complexities in the Study of Emotions, an Overview.” In Parrot, G. Harre, R. (ed.), “The Emotions; Social, Cultural, and Biological Dimensions.” pp. 1-20 (2005)

A. J. Ayer. (2001) “Language, Truth, and Logic.” pp. 135-6. Penguin Publishing

N. Goodman. (1970) “Languages of Art.” The Journal Of Philosophy

Dilworth, J. (2005). “The Double Content of Art.” pp. 88-94 Prometheus Books

P. Watzlawick (1976) “How Real is Real? Confusion, Disinformation, Communication – An Anecdotal Introduction to Communications Theory.” pp. 27-36 Random House Publishing.

J. Averill (1974) “An Analysis of Psychophysiological Symbolism and its Influence on Theories of Emotion.” In Parrot, G. Harre, R. (ed.), “The Emotions; Social, Cultural, and Biological Dimensions.” pp.204-225(2005)

Battlin, M., Fisher, J., Moore, R., Silvers, A. (1989), “Puzzles About Art: An Aesthetics Casebook” pp. 60-66

Shumway, D. (1992), “Michel Foucault” pp. 60-3

Suggested Reading from Inquiries Journal

BioArt is a modern art-form born from the marriage of biotechnology and human inspiration. I argue that the longevity of the art pieces, referred to as BioArtworks, plays an essential role in communicating meaning. As living... MORE»
Advertisement
This article provides a historical perspective on the bystander effect, a social phenomenon that Darley and Latané first studied experimentally in 1968. Critical events that took place prior to the study of the bystander effect are discussed. Specifically, emphasis is placed on the formation of the Society for the Psychological... MORE»
Attempting to find scientific explanations for the Holocaust (Russell, 2011), Milgram designed the experiment to test ordinary people’s susceptibility to authority. Subjects were instructed to administer increasingly strong electric shocks via a specially designed fake shock generator to a victim in another room, even when... MORE»
In 1793-1794, during the height of the French Revolution, a deck of playing cards was introduced that radically changed the future of playing cards as well as symbolically portrayed the transformation occurring in France... MORE»
Submit to Inquiries Journal, Get a Decision in 10-Days

Inquiries Journal provides undergraduate and graduate students around the world a platform for the wide dissemination of academic work over a range of core disciplines.

Representing the work of students from hundreds of institutions around the globe, Inquiries Journal's large database of academic articles is completely free. Learn more | Blog | Submit

Follow IJ

Latest in Philosophy

2020, Vol. 12 No. 11
This work aims to integrate postcolonial scholarship into some basic theoretical foundations of a mainstream economic curriculum. Noting the insufficiencies of neoclassical economics to deal with problems of cultural difference and priority, the... Read Article »
2020, Vol. 12 No. 11
“Just-war theory,” as it is called, aims to guide action during warfare, so that states and individuals can act ethically. Because warfare is often analogized to epidemics, this paper will argue that just-war theory can recommend how... Read Article »
2020, Vol. 12 No. 10
The eugenics movement of the 20th century epitomizes the danger that is possible when religion and science coalesce. Grounded in the emerging science of evolution and heredity, social Darwinists superimposed beliefs about social worth, racial superiority... Read Article »
2020, Vol. 12 No. 09
In contemporary philosophy, the mind-body problem and the problem of consciousness are often viewed through the lens of physicalism, which claims that all that exists is physical. Physicalism in general, and reductive physicalism specifically, remain... Read Article »
2019, Vol. 11 No. 12
There are two views of personal identity that many people find plausible. The first is the psychological continuity view; the second is what I shall call multiplicity views of the self. Despite their plausibility, these positions appear incompatible... Read Article »
2019, Vol. 11 No. 09
Questions regarding the very foundations of our reality abound throughout the history of world philosophies. For example, if we examine Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave,” as well as the Bhagavad Gita, we find that both masterpieces... Read Article »
2018, Vol. 10 No. 01
It is not often that one questions the nature of space, in fact, most people understand extension as independent of their mind as well as the objects that appear in their surrounding world. However, in a radical twist, fitting for the revolutionary... Read Article »

What are you looking for?

FROM OUR BLOG

What is the Secret to Success?
Writing a Graduate School Personal Statement
How to Select a Graduate Research Advisor