The Protocols of the Elders of Mecca

By Erik Eriksen
Interstate - Journal of International Affairs
2012, Vol. 2011/2012 No. 2 | pg. 2/2 |

A Violent Ideology

Breivik is typical of the ideology discussed in this article. The aim of his acts of terrorism was to ‘save Norway and Western Europe from, among other things, cultural Marxism [which is the same as multiculturalism] and Muslim take-over‘. He saw the Labour Party as betraying Norway, ‘deconstructing Norwegian culture and massimporting Muslims.’ In his interpretation of the world, he felt he had to prevent Norway from being ‘colonised by Muslims’.67 We can recognise this rhetoric from that of the self-professed “experts” and politicians mentioned in this article. The question that we cannot avoid is whether others may resort to violence in the same way as Breivik did, in order to “save” their countries from multiculturalism and the perceived Muslim invasion.

In a discussion of whether the Islamophobic community is capable of violence, we must discuss whether these actions take place in this wider community, or whether actions, such as those of Breivik, are merely those of “lone wolves”. Three days after the terrorist attacks in Norway, the then director of the Norwegian Police Security Service, Janne Kristiansen, declared that Breivik was not a “solo terrorist”, but a “lone wolf ”.68 There is a crucial distinction between “lone wolves” and “solo terrorists”; while the former are isolated individuals,69 a “solo terrorist”, which Breivik more correctly may be called, is someone acting alone but on behalf of a wider community.70 Mark Juergensmeyer has argued that terrorists are almost always supported by wider cultures of extremism sustaining their ideology, believing that their actions are for the benefit of this community.71 Breivik’s physical contact with this Islamophobic community seems to be limited,72 but the contact with this community of support can also be vicarious, for example over the Internet, as Gerry Gable, founder of Searchlight magazine, has pointed out.73 Those acting, like Breivik, ‘are often supported by others, either tacitly through the creation of a wider supportive community promoting violence, or explicitly ...’.74 As this article has argued, this wider Islamophobic community, although perhaps not directly calling for violence, glorifies it through their use of terms and their argument that the “occupation” must be stopped. Gable argues that ‘any far-right violence carried out by solo actor terrorists is an extreme product of the wider cultural milieu of far-right activism’.75 Breivik is, in other words, an “extreme product” of the rhetoric of this Islamophobic community. He has support, although perhaps not explicitly, from this community.

An important question is whether we can expect more violence and terror from this Islamophobic community. There have been a number of terrorist attacks from other right-wing communities in the past,76 and it is naïve to deny that this community is capable of doing the same again. This section will discuss two more groups: online debaters, using Norwegian debaters as an example, and groups on the ground, with the EDL as an example. As discussed earlier, hate speech portraying Muslims as occupiers and the government as traitors is normal in the comments section of news articles in the Norwegian online media. This discourse is so filled with ‘hate, harassment and attacks on individuals’,77 that, in the eyes of Øyvind Strømmen, expert on right-wing politics and extremism, there are as many as one hundred Norwegian online debaters that are willing to use violence. According to Strømmen, more bomb attacks are possible.78

A more organised group is the English Defence League, of which many members want violent confrontation.79 There have, in fact, been arrests at most of its demonstrations,80 and its leader, Tommy Robinson, whose real name is Stephen Yaxley-Lennon, has been convicted several times for assault.81 A lecturer in History at the University of Northampton and specialist in farright politics, Paul Jackson,82 Searchlight magazine83 and the organisation, Community Security Trust,84 all agree that the EDL may function as a “gateway” to terrorism and extremism. The vast number of pictures of EDL members posing with weapons, some of which are heavy weapons, is astonishing85 – and only supports this argument. In fact, their posing is strikingly similar to that of Breivik, whose photo of posing with a gun has become widely known.86 Further, right-wing groups attract members from less privileged socio-economic backgrounds, with the economic crisis and increasing unemployment likely to increase the number of possible recruits for these groups.87 For example, the unemployment rate among EDL members aged 24 to 65 is almost five times higher than the United Kingdom as a whole for the same age group.88 They are likely to be taking part in its demonstrations as a way of identifying an “Other” as responsible for their problems. Islamophobia can, in other words, for some, function as a method of scapegoating. This is an aspect that cannot be ignored, and should be addressed.

In the words of Andreas Malm, author of a book on how Islamophobia has become accepted in Europe,89 Breivik ‘is the crusader that so many demagogues and learned people have sought after for the last decade.’90 In an ideology where many influential personalities are implicitly calling for the use of violence, more violence seems unavoidable. With a significant proportion of Breivik’s 1500-page manifesto being a guide in terrorism, explaining how to make bombs and deceive those around you,91 it would not be difficult to replicate what he did. Breivik proved that this community is capable of perpetrating acts of terrorism. He is not a “lone wolf ”, totally isolated from any community, like the director of the Norwegian Police Security Service argued that he was. We cannot rule out more violence and terrorism, and security services will need to focus more on the Islamophobic right-wing after the acts of terrorism in Norway.


This article has examined contemporary radical and extreme Islamophobia, with a special focus on “Eurabia” theorists, who are arguing that Muslims are plotting to take control of Europe. It has also explored arguments that European elites are taking part in this plot. However, this article has expressed the opinion that their arguments are contrary to the facts and are based on conspiratorial readings of events. In the third and fourth sections, it has argued that more violence is likely as a result of these arguments, and that the discourse of extreme Islamophobia is filled with images of occupation and treachery. This article has argued that there is nothing to support the view that Breivik was merely a “lone wolf ”, and that he is, rather, a part of the wider Islamophobic community.

This article has warned against the risk for more violence from this extremist community, pointing out that there are significant groups capable of using violence in their fight against the perceived Muslim take-over.

We must therefore be careful not to view Breivik, who alone was responsible for the attacks in Norway, as merely an insane individual, completely detached from the rest of society, while, at the same time, viewing extreme Islamism as a “natural” result of a violent religion that is full of hate. This is, however, the characteristics of the debate after the terrorist attacks in Norway: what Elizabeth Humphrys calls a ‘dichotomy of “your terrorists and our lone wolves”’ has emerged after the attacks.92 In contrast, this article has argued that the idea of Breivik as a “lone wolf ” is contrary to evidence, instead pointing out that Breivik has been supported by a wider culture of extremism. It is the community sustaining this culture that we must pay attention to, in order to avoid actions similar to those of Breivik.

Islamophobia has much in common with extreme Islamism, which it claims to combat. They both emphasise their own difference to the perceived “Other”, they are both “culturally racist” and focus on the perceived “clash of civilisations”.93 For instance, Hamas bases its view of Jews partly on the fraudulent “Protocols of the Elders of Zion”,94 in similar ways to how many Islamophobic individuals base their views of Muslims. As Johann Hari argues, ‘Europe cannot defeat the far-right poison of Islamic fundamentalism by turning to a parallel farright mythology of its own’.95 By focusing exclusively on Islamic extremism,96 one misses the response to it, namely Islamophobic extremism. However, direct violence may not be the only threat. There are also advocates of Islamophobia within parliaments; it is not only direct violence that is a threat, but also arguments and policies creating “suspect communities”, leading to suspicion, fear and hate in society. It also creates the context in which those who employ violence operate in.


The question that must therefore be asked at the end of this article is as straightforward as it is important: how can we prevent more violence and terror from the Islamophobic community? The possible measures are too many to be all mentioned here. However, there are a few that we cannot avoid. Firstly, more research on Islamophobia has to be undertaken. In the period before the attack in Norway, there was a severe lack of understanding of the dangers the Islamophobic community presents. Secondly, and just as important, is education: the Islamophobic views discussed in this article are based on falsehoods and misunderstandings. As long as these are not countered, through, for example, education and the media (the latter has unfortunately been bordering on Islamophobia after 9/1197), these views will continue to live on, and are likely to influence even more people. There must also be a focus on preventing individuals being attracted to this ideology through positive measures in the first instance. One of the most important measures is to ensure employment, as unemployed individuals are disproportionately likely to get involved in right-wing groups. Austerity measures are, in other words, not the correct solution if reducing Islamophobia and xenophobia is an aim.98 The popularity of the arguments of the Islamophobic community shows us that we must take these views seriously.


  1. The terms “The Elders of Mecca”, “Protocol of the Elders of Medina” and “the Protocols of the Elders of Mohammed” have previously been used by, among others, Øyvind Strømmen, André Darmon and Johann Hari respectively. Strømmen, Ø. The Elders of Mecca. Available at (Accessed 16 August 2011); and Hari, J. ‘Apocalypse Now?’. New Statesman (online), 12 March 2007. Available at http://www.newstatesman. com/books/2007/03/steyn-european-america-muslim (Accessed 8 September 2011).
  2. Lambert, R. and Githens-Mazer, J. ‘Islamophobia and Anti-Muslim Hate Crime: UK Case Studies 2010: An Introduction to a Ten Year Europe-Wide Research Project’, 2nd edn. (Exeter, European Muslim Research Centre, University of Exeter, 2011), p. 19. Available at http:// pdf (Accessed 25 January 2012).
  3. Further must ‘an acknowledged “Muslim” or “Islamic” element – either explicit or implicit, overtly expressed or covertly hidden, or merely even nuanced through meanings that are “theological”, “social”, “cultural”, “racial” and so on ... – ... be present.’ Allen, C. Islamophobia (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010), pp. 190, 194-195.
  4. Halliday, F. Islam & the Myth of Confrontation: religion and politics in the Middle East (London, I. B. Tauris & Co, 2003), ch. 6.
  5. Wilders, G. ‘Speech by Geert Wilders on the first day of the General Debate in the Dutch parliament’, Speech in the Dutch Parliament, 18 September 2009. Available at http://www.geertwilders. nl/?option=com_content&task=view&id=1595 (Accessed 16 August 2011).
  6. Economist, ‘A false prophet: Why Geert Wilders is a problem, not a solution’. The Economist (online), 7 October 2010. Available at http:// (Accessed 3 September 2011). On the fact that the government relies on his party for support in parliament, see, for example, BBC News, ‘Netherlands Islam Freedom: Profile of Geert Wilders’. BBC News (online), 23 June 2011. Available at (Accessed 4 March 2012).
  7. Alcalá, J. ‘Hatet känner inga gränser’. Svenska Dagbladet (online), 3 August 2011. Available at inga-granser_6364558.svd (Accessed 23 August 2011); Ekeroth, T. ‘Ekeroth svarar Alcalá: Jag deltog som privatperson’. Svenska Dagbladet (online), 17 August 2011. Available at http:// 6393151.svd (Accessed 24 August 2011); Alcalá, J. ‘“Ekeroth måste ta ansvar för orden”’, Svenska Dagbladet (online), 17 August 2011. Available at ansvar-for-orden_6393143.svd (Accessed 24 August 2011); Ali, W. et al, ‘Fear, Inc.: The roots of the Islamophobia Network in America’ (Center for American Progress, 2011). Available at html (Accessed 28 August); and Geller, P. ‘Brussels: Counter Jihad Resistance’. Atlas Shrugs (online), 19 October 2007. Available at age.html (Accessed 27 December).
  8. Ibid.
  9. Griffith, S. H., review of The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude, Seventh-Twentieth Century, by Bat Yeor; Miriam Kochan; David Littman’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 30:4 (1998), pp. 619-621.
  10. Ye’or, B. Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis, 11th printing, with new preface, postscript, and appendix (Madison, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2010), p. 29, back cover. This transformation has, in Ye’or’s opinion, only taken thirty years. Ye’or, Eurabia, p. 103. An informative article exploring the “Eurabia” literature, including Ye’or’s writings, is Carr, M. ‘You are now entering Eurabia’. Race & Class, 48:1 (2006), pp. 1-22.
  11. Ye’or, Eurabia, p. 29.
  12. Ye’or, Eurabia, p. 34.
  13. Ye’or, B. The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians under Islam, translated from French by David Maisel, Paul Fenton and David Littman; with a preface by Jacques Ellul; revised and enlarged English edition (Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1985), cited in Ye’or, Eurabia, p. 9.
  14. Ye’or, Eurabia, pp. 33-35,
  15. Cited in Spencer, R. ‘Interview with Bat Ye’or on Eurabia’. Jihad Watch (online), 25 November 2004. Available at http://www. (Accessed 16 August 2011).
  16. Ye’or, Eurabia, pp. 32, 34.
  17. Ye’or, Eurabia, p. 75.
  18. Ye’or, B. Europe, Globalization and the Coming Universal Caliphate (Lexington Books, 2011), pp. 183-185, cited in Bostom, A. Bat ‘Ye’or: “The universal caliphate stands before us”’. Andrew Bostom (online), 16 August 2011. Available at blog/2011/08/16/bat-yeor-the-universal-caliphate-stands-beforeus/ (Accessed 16 August 2011).
  19. Jones, T. ‘How to concort a conspiracy theory’. London Review of Books (online), 20 October 2005. Available at v27/n20/thomas-jones/short-cuts (Accessed 28 August 2011).
  20. Ali, W. et al, ‘Fear, Inc.: The roots of the Islamophobia Network in America’ (Center for American Progress, 2011), pp. 44, 85. Available at html (Accessed 28 August). Also see Southern Poverty Law Center, ‘FBI Used Training Materials from Anti-Muslim Extremists’. Southern Poverty Law Center (online), Winter 2011. Available at issues/2011/winter/fbi-used-training-materials-from-anti (Accessed 15 February 2012).
  21. Cited in Ali, ’Fear, Inc.’, p. 46.
  22. Spencer, R. ‘What is a moderate Muslim?’. Jihad Watch (online), 14 January 2006. Available at what-is-a-moderate-muslim.html (Accessed 30 August 2011). Emphasis added. The Crusades are completely different, according to Spencer. Spencer, R. The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades) (Washington DC, Regnery Publishing, 2005).
  23. Steinback, R. ‘The Anti-Muslim Inner Circle’, with illustration by Bri Hermanson. Southern Poverty Law Center (online), Summer 2011. Available at intelligence-report/browse-all-issues/2011/summer/the-antimuslim- inner-circle (Accessed 30 August 2011); and Ali et al, ‘Fear, Inc.’, p. 46.
  24. Alcalá, ’Hatet känner inga gränser’.
  25. Steinback, ‘Anti-Muslim Inner Circle’.
  26. Steyn, M. Mark’s Bio. Available at content/view/67/121/ (Accessed 4 September 2011).
  27. Steyn, M. ‘The future belongs to Islam’. Macleans (online), 20 October 2006. Available at ent=20061023_134898_134898 (Accessed 30 August 2011).
  28. Eurostat, ‘Demography Report 2010: Latest figures on the demographic challenges in the EU’. Eurostat Press Office (online), 1 April 2011. Available at ITY_PUBLIC/3-01042011-BP/EN/3-01042011-BP-EN.PDF (Accessed 2 March 2012).
  29. Steyn, ‘The future belongs to Islam’; Strømmen, Ø. Det mørke nettet: om høyreekstremisme, kontrajihadisme og terror i Europa (Oslo, Cappelen Damm, 2011), pp. 91-97; and Ye’or, Eurabia, back cover.
  30. Cited in Kuper, S. ‘Immigrant Muslims in Belleville’. Financial Times (online), 2 October 2009. Available at cms/s/2/1f4cf7c4-ad5e-11de-9caf-00144feabdc0.html (Accessed 25 August 2011).
  31. Underhill, W. ‘Why Fears Of A Muslim Takeover Are All Wrong’. Newsweek (online), 10 July 2009. Available at http://www. are-all-wrong.html (Accessed 28 August 2011).
  32. Kent, M. M. ‘Do Muslims Have More Children Than Other Women in Western Europe?’. Population Reference Bureau (online), February 2008. Available at muslimsineurope.aspx?p=1 (Accessed 24 January 2011); Angenendt, S. et al, ‘Muslim Integration: Challenging Conventional Wisdom in Europe and the United States’ (Centre for Strategic and International Studies, 2007), pp. 7-32. Available at csis/pubs/070920_muslimintegration.pdf (Accessed 24 January 2011); and Roudi-Fahimi, F. and Kent, M. M. ‘Fertility Declining in the Middle East and North Africa’. Population Reference Bureau (online), April 2008. Available at menafertilitydecline.aspx?p=1 (Accessed 24 January 2011).
  33. The PEW Forum on Religion & Public Life, ‘The Future of the Global Muslim Population: Projections for 2010-2030’, The PEW Forum on Religion & Public Life (online), 27 January 2011. Available at regional-europe.aspx (Accessed 2 March 2012).
  34. To paraphrase Statistics Norway, it would require a Muslim awakening among those without immigrant backgrounds. Quoted in Sarwar, S. ’Hevder at muslimer vil være i flertall i Norge i 2060’. TV2 Nyhetene (online), 23 August 2011. Available at http://www. i-2060-3562565.html (Accessed 23 August 2011).
  35. Encyclopædia Britannica, Siege of Vienna. Available at http:// (Accessed 18 December 2011).
  36. Meland, A. and Melgård, M. ’ Fjordman foreslo nazi-løsning’. Dagbladet (online), 6 August 2011. Available at http://www.dagbladet. no/2011/08/06/nyheter/utoya/internett/fjordman/17574687/ (Accessed 6 September 2011).
  37. Baron Bodissey (ed.), Gates of Vienna. Available at http:// (Accessed 31 August 2011). Baron Bodissey real name is Edward S May. Williams, D. ‘The International anti-Muslim network’. Searchlight (London), August 2011, pp. 12- 13, here p. 12. However, in fact, the king of Upper Hungary, Imre Thököly, a protestant, fought on the side of the Ottomans. It was thus not merely Muslims against Christians. Strømmen, Det mørke nettet, p. 91.
  38. Underhill, ‘Fears Of A Muslim Takeover’.
  39. Cited in ENGAGE, ‘Geert Wilders: Europe’s Most Dangerous Man?’ ENGAGE (online), 18 February 2011. Available at http://www. europes-most-dangerous-man (Accessed 3 September 2011).
  40. Economist, ‘A false prophet’.
  41. Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘Islām’. Available at http://www. (Accessed 18 December 2011).
  42. On the fact that the government relies on his party for support in parliament, see, for example, BBC News, ‘Netherlands Islam Freedom’.
  43. See for example Wilders, ‘Speech by Geert Wilders on the first day of the General Debate’; and Berwick, A. 2083: An European Declaration of Independence (London, 2011). Andrew Berwick is a pseudonym of Anders Behring Breivik. To Breivik, the actions of terrorism were part of a publicity stunt for the promotion of his manifesto. For that reason, this author will not help spread it by linking to it. Kremer, J. Stigset, M. and Treloar, S. ‘Norway Shooting Suspect Breivik Is Ordered Into Isolation for Four Weeks’. Bloomberg (online), 25 July 2011. Available at news/2011-07-24/norway-killing-suspect-may-explain-motives. html (Accessed 4 March 2012).
  44. See for example Berwick, 2083.
  45. Ye’or, Eurabia.
  46. Ye’or, Eurabia, p. 9.
  47. Ye’or, Eurabia, p. 10.
  48. E.g. Ye’or, Eurabia, pp. 48, 52.
  49. Wilders, ‘Speech by Geert Wilders on the first day of the General Debate’.
  50. Cited in Strømmen, Ø. ‘Hatet på nettet. Nokre norske døme’. traktningar (online), 30 July 2011. Available atøme/ (Accessed 28 August 2011). Translation by author.
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  52. Meland and Melgård, ‘Fjordman foreslo nazi-løsning’; and Strømmen, Det mørke nettet, p. 54
  53. Berwick, 2083, p. 1394.
  54. Fjordman, ’Native Revolt: A European Declaration of Independence’. The Brussels Journal (online), 16 March 2007. Available at (Accessed 16 August 2011). See Fjordman, The Eurabia Code. Available at (Accessed 16 August 2011). See Fjordman, The Fjordman Files as well. Available at (Accessed 16 August 2011). Emphasis added.
  55. Ravndal, D. et al, ‘- «Fjordman» oppfordrer indirekte til vold’. Verdens Gang (online), 5 August 2011. available at nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10097202 (Accessed 23 August 2011). However, he once called on the Dutch to arm themselves. See Fjordman, ‘Will Holland Survive the 21st Century?’. Gates of Vienna (online), 19 September 2008. Available at 21st-century.html (Accessed 30 August 2011).
  56. Fjordman, ‘When Treason Becomes The Norm: Why The Proposition Nation, Not Islam, Is Our Primary Enemy’. Gates of Vienna (online), 9 June 2011. Available at http://gatesofvienna. (Accessed 7 September 2011).
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  58. McSmith, A. ‘Tycoons back new far-right grouping’. The Independent (online), 12 December 2012. Available at http://www. 6275786.html (Accessed 4 March 2012).
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  60. Copsey, ‘English Defence League’, p. 11.
  61. Cited in Kleiman, M. ‘Steyn and Genocide’. The Atlantic (online), 19 February 2007. Available at archive/2007/02/steyn-and-genocide/230754/ (Accessed 30 August 2011).
  62. Cited in Kleiman, ‘Steyn and Genocide’.
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  67. Cited in BBC News, ‘Judge: Accused claims attacks done ‘tosave Norway’’. BBC (online), 25 July 2011. Available at (Accessed 7 September 2011); and Den offentlige påtalemyndigheten mot Anders Behring Breivik.
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  69. Gable, G. and Jackson, P. Lone wolves: myth or reality? A Searchlight report (Searchlight, 2011), p. 6. Available at http://www. (Accessed 25 August 2011).
  70. Jackson, P. ‘Solo actor terrorism and the mythology of the lone wolf ’, in Gable and Jackson, Lone wolves, pp. 79-88, here p. 81.
  71. Juergensmeyer, M. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of religious Violence (Berkley: University of California Press, 2000), cited in Gable and Jackson, Lone wolves, pp. 81-85. In fact, Gerry Gable, founding editor of the anti-fascist Searchlight magazine, has not been able to find any “lone wolf ” terrorists in the United Kingdom, and the only ‘genuine lone wolf ’ the FBI has come across is the “Unabomber”, Ted Kaczynski. See Gable and Jackson, Lone wolves, pp. 13, 23.
  72. However, he may have met members in London, as well as had online contact with the EDL. See Hughes, M. and Rayner, G. ‘Norway killer Anders Behring Breivik had extensive links to English Defence League’. The Telegraph (online), 25 July 2011. Available at norway/8661139/Norway-killer-Anders-Behring-Breivik-hadextensive- links-to-English-Defence-League.html (Accessed 11 September 2011); Stormoen, S.-E. and Glesnes, G. ‘- Breivik møtte britiske høyreekstremister’. VG Nett (online), 26 September 2011. Available at artikkel.php?artid=10080784 (Accessed 28 December 2011); and Lowles, N. and Creasy, S. ‘Comrades in arms’. Searchlight (London), August 2011, pp. 6-7.
  73. Jackson, ‘Solo actor terrorism’, here p. 85; and Gable and Jackson, Lone wolves, p. 85.
  74. Jackson, ‘Solo actor terrorism’, here pp. 87-88.
  75. Jackson, ‘Solo actor terrorism’, here p. 88.
  76. See for example Gable and Jackson, Lone wolves, chs. 2-3.
  77. Cited in Korsvold, T. ‘Terror i Norge: – Jeg tror det kommer flere angrep’. TV2 Nyhetene (online), 6 August 2011. Available at flere-angrep-3553220.html (Accessed 23 August 2011). Translation by author.
  78. Korsvold, ‘Terror i Norge’.
  79. Copsey, ‘English Defence League’, p. 27.
  80. Copsey, ‘English Defence League, pp. 28-30.
  81. Lowles, N. and Cressy, S. ‘The BNP past of the EDL leader’. HOPE not hate (online), 23 June 2010. Available at http://www. (Accessed 4 March 2012); and BBC News, ‘EDL leader Stephen Lennon convicted of assault’. BBC News (online), 29 September 2011. Available at lancashire-15117961 (Accessed 4 March 2012). For other arrests, see BBC News, ‘EDL leader Stephen Lennon remanded for bail breach’. BBC News (online), 5 September 2011. Available at (Accessed 4 March 2012); and Holden, M. ‘Police arrest 170 near Armistice parade’. Reuters (online), 11 November 2011. Available at (Accessed 4 March 2012).
  82. Jackson, ‘Solo actor terrorism’, here p. 86.
  83. Lowles, N. ‘It’s time to act against the EDL’. Searchlight (London), August 2011, pp. 14-15.
  84. Cited in Lowles, ‘It’s time to act’.
  85. See for example King, S. ‘The guns of The EDL’. HOPE not hate (online), 30 August 2011. Available at uk/blog/article/1341/the-guns-of-the-edl (Accessed 9 September 2011); Lowles, ‘It’s time to act’; and Gable and Jackson, Lone wolves, pp. 94, 98.
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  87. Weinberg, L. and Davies, P. Introduction to Political Terrorism (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1989), pp. 84-96, cited in Jackson, R. et al, Terrorism: A Critical Introduction (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), p. 155.
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  90. Malm, A. ‘Voldelig islamofobi’. Dagbladet (online), 26 July 2011. Available at kronikk/utoya/islamofobi/17457373/ (Accessed 30 August 2011). Translation by author.
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  94. Hamas, ‘Hamas Covenant 1988: The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement’ (1988). Available at edu/20th_century/hamas.asp (Accessed 4 March 2012).
  95. Hari, J. ‘Apocalypse now?’ New Statesman (online), 12 March 2007. Available at steyn-european-america-muslim (Accessed 8 September 2011).
  96. There have been remarkably few terrorist attacks perpetrated by Muslims in Europe. Out of the European countries covered in Europol’s statistics, only nine, or 0.42 percent, of ‘failed, foiled and successfully executed attacks’ in the period from 2006 to 2010 were classified as Islamist, while 23.6 percent of suspects arrested for terrorist-related offences were classified as Islamists. By far, most terrorist actions are classified as separatist terrorism. Europol, ‘TE-SAT 2007: EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report’ (The Hague, European Police Office, 2007), pp. 13-14. Available at tesat2007.pdf; Europol, ‘TE-SAT 2008: EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report’ (The Hague, European Police Office, 2008), pp. 10-11. Available at https:// tesat2008.pdf; Europol, ‘TE-SAT 2009: EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report’ (The Hague, European Police Office, 2009), pp. 11-13. Available at https:// tesat2009_0.pdf; Europol, ‘TE-SAT 2010: EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report’ (The Hague, European Police Office, 2010), pp. 11-12. Available at https:// tesat2010_0.pdf; and Europol, ‘TE-SAT 2011: EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report’ (The Hague, European Police Office, 2011), pp. 9, 15, 21. Available at files/publications/te-sat2011.pdf (All accessed 8 September 2011).
  97. In the United Kingdom, for example, Chris Allen discovered that in a ‘normal’ week, 12 of the 19 national newspapers he examined had an ‘entirely negatively framed or associated representation of Islam and Muslims ...’ In total, 91 percent of the representations of Muslims and Islam were considered to be negative, with almost 50 percent considering Muslims and Islam to be a threat. 84 percent represented Muslims and Islam as ‘either ... “likely to cause damage or danger” or as “operating in a time of intense difficulty or danger”.’ Given that 74 percent of the British population know ‘nothing or next to nothing about Islam’ and 64 have ‘[acquired] what they ... [know] through the media’, this way of portraying Muslims is dangerous. Allen, C. ‘A “Normal” Week in Muslims in the Media’, ed. INSTED (London: Greater London Authority, 2007), cited in Allen, Islamophobia, pp. 98-99; and YOUGOV, Attitudes towards British Muslims, Islam Awareness Week (4 November 2002), cited in Allen, Islamophobia, p. 96.
  98. Ball, L., Leigh, D. and Loungani, P. ‘Painful Medicine. International Monetary Fund (online), September 2011. Available at http://www. (Accessed 4 March 2012).

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