Who Drove the Libyan Uprising?

By Alex Serafimov
Interstate - Journal of International Affairs
2012, Vol. 2011/2012 No. 2 | pg. 2/2 |


The Libyan diaspora’s actions against the Gaddafi regime go back to the early 1980s. Operating most commonly from the US and Europe, it has launched ‘both military and media campaigns against the regime of Muammar Gaddafi’.117 One prominent exile organisation, the National Front for the Salvation of Libya (NFSL), had even attempted to assassinate Gaddafi in 1984 only to be foiled by security forces.118 During the civil war, the son of the NFSL’s Secretary General Ibrahim Sahad was important in helping set up the NTC’s communications early on in the conflict,119 something no doubt crucial for the body to spread its message. Alongside this, ‘wired’ Libyans abroad helped spread news about events to western media.120 Moreover, as already discussed, the NTC appointed a wealthy exile, al-Keib, as the Prime Minister of Libya. Most importantly, the ICG writes, contrary to Western media coverage that presented the anti-Gaddafi movement as being organised solely in the east of Libya, the calls for protest actually originated from Libyans living abroad, mainly in Switzerland and the UK.121 In addition, it was the violent NFSL that, in conjunction with the NTC, met with the US government to lobby for a no-fly zone,122 arguably the key factor in the Libyan militancy’s overall success. Tellingly, the NFSL will participate in elections in Libya, hoping to ‘institute a [political] model similar to the American one’ with a free market economy, but with a role for Islam.123 Indeed, the model of Islam and the free market is shared by most new political forces in Libya.124

A two-part Al Jazeera documentary further outlines some of the roles of the Libyan diaspora in the conflict. For example, it discusses a wealthy exile, Abduladim El Mayat, who funnelled aid and supplies to militants in the Western Mountains of Libya. ‘Gaddafi, he took my house, he took it by force… I want to go back to my house’, he explains.125 This telling comment comes alongside a growing property reclamation movement in Libya. Dozens of contentious claims over property expropriated by Gaddafi have been made, with it on occasion being reclaimed by militants using force.126 There has also been pressure on the NTC by a 400 member ‘property owners’ advocacy’ group to repeal the law under which properties were confiscated in the Gaddafi period, and limited Libyans to one property each.127 This group is headed by Shakr Mohamed Dakhil, son of one of Libya’s most important businessmen during the 1970s, who has said that ‘[p]roperties were confiscated overnight, and this is how they should be returned’ with their current residents evicted in some cases.128 This is very much akin to what happened in post-1989 Eastern Europe, where contentious (and ongoing) property reclamation led to increasing inequality and a high concentration of property ownership.129 Interestingly, it was Abdul Jalil, current Libyan head of state, who was charged with heading up claims to property in the late “reformist” stage of the Gaddafi regime130 showing that he is likely to be very sympathetic to this movement.

Elsewhere, the Al Jazeera documentary discusses exiled Libyans who joined in the armed conflict131 something that the NFSL also did, where it even lost some militants in battle.132 Overall, the Libyan diaspora proved ‘crucial’ for the survival of the anti-Gaddafi movement133 and all of this may suggest a dynamic of “restoration” as opposed to revolution in Libya, comprising a possible attempt to return to a lost pre-Gaddafi past.


Looking at the types of people who participated in the initial protests, the militancy, the state leadership through the NTC, and Libyan exiles, we can draw several conclusions as to “who drove the Libyan revolution”. To summarise, the early protesters were driven onto the streets by the repressiveness of the ruling regime and by socio-economic grievances, a dynamic that has coloured the movements in the region generally. The young, mostly male, and working and middle class individuals were largely united in the shared grievances at the personalised rule of Muammar Gaddafi and originally only numbered in the hundreds. Quickly turning to violence after government repression, these initial demonstrations soon gave way to an armed militancy, possibly due to the perception of having “nothing to lose”. Like the protesters, the militants were mostly composed of working, middle class and professional men, with a peripheral role for women. The militancy was largely informal, untrained and formed by area, district or street. This is demonstrated by the prominent Tripoli Military Council, Western Military Council (Zintan) and Misratan Military Council, all based around major Libyan cities. Foreign military aid was also crucial, being key in the storming of Gaddafi’s compound, the taking of Tripoli and the capture and execution of Gaddafi himself, the three critical events of the armed conflict. A key individual in the militancy is Abdel Hakim Belhaj, leader of the Tripoli Military Council, founder of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG), now the Libyan Islamic Movement for Change (LIMC), and important Islamic figure. Islam plays a major role, as Islamists and former Jihadists form large portions of the militants, who often couched their struggle in Islamic terms. Holding a tenuous moral authority in Libya is the National Transitional Council. It is characterised by its selfappointed nature and the prevalence of high-level regime defectors, businessmen and exiles who take a broadly pro-Western and free market approach. Prominent individuals include Libyan head of state Mustafa Abdul Jalil, who was Minister of Justice under Gaddafi and has demonstrated conservative, pro-Western and pro-market tendencies. Others include current Prime Minister Abdurrahim al-Keib, an academic, technocrat and businessman who hails from one of the elite families of Libya and holds largely similar views. The critiques by former members of the NTC demonstrate a palpable gulf between the largely working and middle class militancy and the elite composition of the NTC, despite its efforts to be geographically inclusive. Finally, we see the important and underreported role of Libyan exiles who proved crucial in initiating, funding and participating in the conflict.

Between these groups we see many overlapping and contested authorities. While the NTC’s authority and legitimacy is questioned by some, it dominates the official policy of state and has an important role for exiles in its ranks. Militant groups dominate in their localities and in the provision of security throughout Libya, and have shown disdain for the NTC while frequently clashing amongst themselves. Finally, protesters have also made an impact, such as forcing a high level resignation within the NTC. As for the future of Libya, several issues require further attention. The role of foreign and exile actors hints at the possibility of a “restoration” as opposed to a revolutionary dynamic in Libya, especially if we look at their links to elite Libyan families exiled by Gaddafi and reclamation of expropriated property. The widely reported existence of torture, illegal detention and human rights abuses, especially of black Libyans,134 by some militant groups and under the watch of the NTC,135 raises serious questions as to their legitimacy and the ethics of Western aid and support for these groups. Also, it seems that Libya is already taking steps towards ever closer ties with the West and the liberalisation of its economy, a process under way since the last decade of the Gaddafi regime. Finally, the return of prominent Gaddafi-era and NTC officials to the political stage in Libya under their own political parties, such as Jibril and Tarhouni,136 raises the spectre of unwelcome continuity in the “new” Libya.137


  1. Achcar, G., cited in Democracy Now! ‘The One Billion Dollar Question: Who Are the Libyan Rebels?’. Democracy Now! (online), 24 August 2011. Available at http://www.democracynow.org/2011/8/24/ the_1_billion_dollar_question_who (Accessed 16 December 2011).
  2. Murphy, D. ‘So who are Libya’s rebels exactly?’ The Christian Science Monitor (online), 19 July 2011. Available at http://www.csmonitor. com/World/Backchannels/2011/0719/So-who-are-Libya-s-rebelsexactly/% 28page%29/3 (Accessed 16 December 2011).
  3. Al Jazeera, ‘Who is really controlling Libya?’ Al Jazeera (online), 27 January 2012. Available at http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/ insidestory/2012/01/20121279497910159.html (Accessed 1 April 2012).
  4. BBC News, ‘Libya protests: Second city Benghazi hit by violence’. BBC News (online), 16 February 2011. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/ news/world-africa-12477275 (Accessed 20 December 2011)
  5. International Crisis Group (ICG), ‘Popular Protest in North Africa and the Middle East (V): Making Sense of Libya’, Middle East/ North Africa Report N°107 - 6 June 2011 (Brussels, ICG, 2011). p. 1. Available at http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/Middle%20 East%20North%20Africa/North%20Africa/107%20-%20Popular%20 Protest%20in%20North%20Africa%20and%20the%20Middle%20 East%20V%20-%20Making%20Sense%20of%20Libya.pdf (Accessed 16 December 2011).
  6. BBC News, ‘Libya protests: Second city Benghazi hit by violence’; Al-Jazeera, ‘Libyan police stations torched’. Al-Jazeera (online), 16 February 2011. Available at http://www.aljazeera.com/news/ africa/2011/02/20112167051422444.html (Accessed 20 December 2011); and France 24, ‘Violent protests rock Libyan city of Benghazi’. France 24 (online), 16 February 2011. Available at http://www. france24.com/en/20110216-libya-violent-protests-rock-benghazianti- government-gaddafi-egypt-tunisia-demonstration (Accessed 20 December 2011).
  7. According to Libyan diplomat Ahmed Jibril who later joined the protests. He estimates that numbers rose to 50,000 but this may be an exaggeration. ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, p. 5.
  8. ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, pp. 1-2.
  9. ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, p. 1.
  10. The average age in Libya is (averaged between males and females) 24.5 years. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Libya. Available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ ly.html (Accessed 21 December 2011). This is nearly half the average age in the United Kingdom, for example, which stands at 40. CIA, United Kingdom. Available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/theworld- factbook/geos/uk.html (Accessed 21 December 2011).
  11. ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, p. 24.
  12. ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, p. 24.
  13. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together: Security Challenges after Qadhafi’, Middle East/North Africa Report N° 115 – 14 December 2011. (Brussels, ICG, 2011), p. 1. Available at http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/ Files/Middle%20East%20North%20Africa/North%20Africa/115%20 Holding%20Libya%20Together%20--%20Security%20Challenges%20 after%20Qadhafi.pdf (Accessed 16 December 2011).
  14. ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, p. 18.
  15. ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, p. 17.
  16. Chenoweth, E. ‘Did the Libyan uprising have to be violent?’ Waging Nonviolence (online), 25 August 2011. Available at http:// wagingnonviolence.org/2011/08/did-the-libyan-uprising-have-to-beviolent/ (Accessed 20 December 2011).
  17. United States Embassy Tripoli, ‘08Tripoli120, Extremism in Eastern Libya’. Wikileaks (online), 15 February 2008). Available at http:// wikileaks.org/cable/2008/02/08TRIPOLI120.html# (Accessed 21 December 2011).
  18. ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, pp. i-ii.
  19. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, pp. i, 30; Al Jazeera, ‘Who is really controlling Libya?’
  20. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. i.
  21. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. i.
  22. Hawley, C. ‘Libyan women battle for empowerment’. BBC News (online), 13 December 2011. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ world-africa-16160671 (Accessed 29 December 2011).
  23. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, pp. i, 3.
  24. England, A. ‘Q&A: Who are the Libyan rebels?’. Financial Times (online), 20 March 2011. Available at http://www.ft.com/cms/ s/0/5bfb98b0-52fd-11e0-86e6-00144feab49a.html#axzz1rActHGrC (Accessed 2 January 2012).
  25. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. i.
  26. Quoted in ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 3.
  27. Misratan brigade leader, quoted in ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 3.
  28. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. i.
  29. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 19.
  30. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 19.
  31. Layton, P. and Layton, K. ‘Long summer of war in Libya’. Defence Today (online), September 2011. Available at http://www.defencenews. com.au/defence-today-feature-report.cfm. (Accessed 4 January 2012).
  32. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p.19.
  33. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 20.
  34. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, pp. 20-21.
  35. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 22.
  36. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 22.
  37. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, pp. 22-23.
  38. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 10; and Black I. ‘The Libyan Islamic Fighting Group – from al-Qaida to the Arab spring’. The Guardian (online), 5 September 2011). Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/ world/2011/sep/05/libyan-islamic-fighting-group-leaders (Accessed 3 January 2012).
  39. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, pp. 10-11.
  40. BBC News, ‘Profile: Libyan rebel commander Abdel Hakim Belhaj’. BBC News (online), 5 September 2011. Available at http://www.bbc. co.uk/news/world-africa-14786753 (Accessed 2 January 2012).
  41. Black, I. ‘Libyan Islamists must have share in power, warns leader’. The Guardian (online), 27 September 2011. Available at http://www. guardian.co.uk/world/2011/sep/27/libyan-islamists-power-sharewarning (Accessed 3 January 2012).
  42. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Toghether’, pp.10-11.
  43. BBC News, ‘Abdel Hakim Belhaj’.
  44. BBC News, ‘Abdel Hakim Belhaj’; Norton-Taylor, R. ‘Libyan rebel leader sues Britain over rendition ordeal’. The Guardian (online), 19 December 2011. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/ dec/19/libyan-rebel-abdel-hakim-belhadj (Accessed 19 December 2011) outlines the ordeal in detail.
  45. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 10.
  46. Black, ‘Libyan Islamists must have share in power’.
  47. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 11.
  48. Quoted in ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 11.
  49. According to an audio interview, Frazee, G. ‘IU Law Professor Helps Libyans With Constitution, Elections’. Indiana Public News (online), 31 January 2012. Available at http://indianapublicmedia.org/news/iulaw- professor-helps-libyans-constitution-elections-26182/ (Accessed 2 February 2012).
  50. Murphy, F. and Shuaib, A. ‘Libya’s NTC unveils new government line-up’. Reuters (online), 22 November 2011. Available at http://www. reuters.com/article/2011/11/22/us-libya-idUSTRE7AL0JM20111122 (Accessed 2 February 2012).
  51. Lane, E. ‘Libya’s rebels without a cause’. BBC News (online), 15 December 2011. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/worldafrica- 16187211 (Accessed 16 December 2011).
  52. Lane, ‘Libya’s rebels without a cause’.
  53. See, for example BBC News, ‘‘Dozens killed’ in clashes in Libyan town of Sabha’. BBC News (online), 29 March 2012. Available at http:// www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-17543390 (Accessed 1 April 2012).
  54. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, pp. i-ii.
  55. Starr, B. ‘Foreign forces in Libya helping rebel forces advance ‘. CNN (online), 24 August 2011. Available at http://articles.cnn.com/2011- 08-24/world/libya.foreign.forces_1_rebel-forces-special-forces-rebelunits?_ s=PM:WORLD (Accessed 12 March 2012).
  56. Horne, N. ‘Qatari special forces led Libyan attack on compound’. The Week (online), 24 August 2011. Available at http://www.theweek. co.uk/politics/2821/qatari-special-forces-led-libyan-attack-compound (Accessed 12 March 2012).
  57. Harding, T. ‘Libya: SAS leads hunt for Gaddafi’. The Telegraph (online), 24 August 2011. Available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/ news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8721291/Libya-SASleads- hunt-for-Gaddafi.html (Accessed 12 March 2012).
  58. Fahim, K. and Mazzetti, M. ‘Rebels’ Assault on Tripoli Began With Careful Work Inside’. The New York Times (online), 22 August 2011. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/23/world/ africa/23reconstruct.html?_r=1 (Accessed 12 March 2012).
  59. Fahim, K., Shadid, A. and Gladstone, R. ‘Violent End to an Era as Qaddafi Dies in Libya’. The New York Times (online), 20 October 2011. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/21/world/africa/qaddafiis- killed-as-libyan-forces-take-surt.html?pagewanted=all (Accessed 12 March 2012).
  60. ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, p. 24.
  61. BBC News, ‘Key figures in post-Gaddafi Libya’. BBC News (online), 20 October 2011. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/worldafrica- 14896059 (Accessed 2 February 2012); http://www.guardian. co.uk/world/2012/jan/24/former-gaddafi-stronghold-rejectsgovernment
  62. Murphy, D. ‘So who are Libya’s rebels exactly?’
  63. Lacher, W. ‘Families, Tribes and Cities in the Libyan Revolution,’ Middle East Policy Council, November 2011 cited in Blanchard, C. M. ‘Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy’, Congressional Research Service, note 29, p. 17, (online), 28 March 2012. Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/ crs/row/RL33142.pdf (Accessed 5 April 2012).
  64. ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, p. 24.
  65. ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, p. 24.
  66. Murphy and Shuaib, ‘Libya’s NTC unveils new government line-up’.
  67. Stephen, C. and Hardin, L. ‘Libyan PM snubs Islamists with cabinet to please western backers’. The Guardian (online), 22 November 2011. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/22/libyanprime- minister-abdulrahman-el-keib (Accessed 4 February 2012).
  68. Quoted in ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, p. 26.
  69. The Interim National Council, Libya (Political and International Affairs Committee), ‘A Vision of a Democratic Libya’. Stars and Stripes (online), 27 December 2011. Available at http://www.stripes. com/polopoly_fs/1.139321.1301397632!/menu/standard/file/Libya_ Transition.pdf.pdf (Accessed 4 February 2012). It can also be found at The Libyan Interim National Council, ‘A vision of a democratic Libya’. The Libyan Interim National Council (online), n.d. Available at http:// www.ntclibya.org/english/libya/ (Accessed 4 February 2012).
  70. Document available at The Interim Transitional National Council, ‘Draft Constitutional Charter for the Transitional Stage’. (Benghazi, ‘The Interim Transitional National Council’, 2011), Art. 8, 16. Available at http://portal.clinecenter.illinois.edu/REPOSITORYCACHE/114/4py47 DaBn9jLA742IFN3d70VnOYueW7t67gWXEs3XiVJJxM8n18U9Wi8v AoO7_24166.pdf (Accessed 5 February 2012).
  71. The Interim Transitional National Council, ‘Draft Constitutional Charter’, Art. 17.
  72. Militant groups all have their own ‘narrative’ of revolutionary legitimacy deriving from certain actions in the conflict. Zintanis for example argue that they were key in taking Tripoli and so deserve their own share of power and legitimacy. See ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, pp. i, ii, 8.
  73. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. i.
  74. Reuters, ‘Libya parties get assembly seats, women lose quota’. Reuters (online), 9 February 2012. Available at http://af.reuters.com/article/ topNews/idAFJOE81802H20120209?pageNumber=2&virtualBrandCh annel=0 (Accessed 9 February 2012).
  75. Reuters, ‘Libya drops election quota for women’. Reuters (online), 20 January 2012. Available at http://af.reuters.com/article/ commoditiesNews/idAFL6E8CK1SF20120120?sp=true (Accessed 9 February 2012).
  76. Reuters, ‘Libyan government to review its ambassadors’. Reuters (online), 29 January 2012. Available at http://af.reuters.com/article/ topNews/idAFJOE80S02920120129 (Accessed 9 February 2012).
  77. Reuters, ‘Libyan government to review its ambassadors’; and Bridoux, J. ‘Why Libya will not be a second Iraq’. openDemocracy (online), 15 April 2011. Available at http://www.opendemocracy.net/opensecurity/ jeff-bridoux/why-libya-will-not-be-second-iraq (Accessed 9 February 2012).
  78. Frazee, ‘IU Law Professor Helps Libyans’.
  79. Reuters, ‘Libyan government to review its ambassadors’.
  80. Al-Jazeera, ‘Libya Live Blog’. Al-Jazeera (online), n.d. Available at http://blogs.aljazeera.net/liveblog/Libya (Accessed 11 February 2012).
  81. Libya Herald, ‘Ali Tarhouni launches party; says he coordinates with Jibril: Exclusive Interview’. Libya Herald (online), n.d. Available at http://www.libyaherald.com/ali-tarhouni-launches-party-says-hecoordinates- with-jibril-exclusive-interview/ (Accessed 4 April 2012).
  82. BBC News, ‘Key figures in post-Gaddafi Libya’.
  83. Kossov, I. ‘Libya’s New Rebel Leader’. The Daily Beast (online), 29 August 2011. Available at http://www.thedailybeast.com/ articles/2011/08/29/libyan-revolt-s-quiet-mastermind-mustafa-abduljalil. html (Accessed 16 February 2012).
  84. ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, p. 24.
  85. Abdul Jalil proclaimed to a crowd of supporters in Tripoli: ‘We are a Muslim nation, with a moderate Islam, and we will maintain that.’ BBC News, ‘Key figures in post-Gaddafi Libya.
  86. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 12.
  87. It does this by ‘requiring parties to field lists that alternate between men and women…’ This could lead to as many as 20% of seats being taken by women. This is after ‘a first draft [of the Electoral Law] had allocated 10 percent of the seats to women through a quota, which was then discarded amidst controversy’. Coleman, I. ‘Libya’s New Election Law: Part III’. Council on Foreign Relations (online), 10 February 2012. Available at http://blogs.cfr.org/coleman/2012/02/10/libyas-newelection- law-part-iii/ (Accessed 12 March 2012).
  88. The French foreign minister Alain Juppé, for example, said that ‘[t] his is a problem for us, especially in regard to respect for the dignity of women’ and had to defend his support for the NTC in the National Assembly. Nossiter, A. ‘Hinting at an End to a Curb on Polygamy, Interim Libyan Leader Stirs Anger’. The New York Times (online), 29 October 2011. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/30/ world/africa/libyan-leaders-remark-favoring-polygamy-stirs-anger. html?pagewanted=all (Accessed 16 February 2012).
  89. Blanchard, ‘Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy’, Table 1, pp. 10-11.
  90. The United States Embassy Tripoli. ‘10Tripoli78, Senior Libyan Justice Official: Less Talk, More Action is Best Tripoli 00000078 001.2 of 002’. Wikileaks (online), 27 January 2010. Available at http://wikileaks. org/cable/2010/01/10TRIPOLI78.html# (Accessed 27 February 2012).
  91. The United States Embassy Tripoli, ‘Less Talk More Action’.
  92. The United States Embassy Tripoli. ‘09tripoli764, Libya’s Agency for Economic Reform Renews Requests for American Expertise Ref: A) Tripoli 386; B) 08 Tripoli 937; C) Tripoli 223 Tripoli 00000764 001.2 of 003’ Wikileaks (online); 24 September 2009. Available at http://wikileaks. org/cable/2009/09/09TRIPOLI764.html# (Accessed 27 February 2012).
  93. The United States Embassy Tripoli, ‘Less Talk More Action’.
  94. The United States Embassy Tripoli, ‘Less Talk More Action’.
  95. The United States Embassy Tripoli, ‘Less Talk More Action’.
  96. The “liberation” was officially proclaimed on October 23, 2011. BBC News, ‘Libya: Abdurrahim al-Keib named new interim PM’. BBC News (online), 1 November 2011. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ world-africa-15530640 (Accessed 26 February 2012).
  97. Reuters, ‘UPDATE 2-Abdul Raheem al-Keeb elected Libya’s interim PM’. Reuters (online), 31 October 2011. Available at http://af.reuters. com/article/libyaNews/idAFL5E7LV46820111031?pageNumber=2&vi rtualBrandChannel=0 (Accessed 26 February 2012).
  98. Al-Jazeera, ‘Profile: Abdurrahim El Keib’. Al-Jazeera (online), 1 November 2011. Available at http://www.aljazeera.com/news/ africa/2011/11/20111119302916682.html (Accessed 26 February 2012).
  99. He taught electrical engineering. Reeves, J. and Breen, T. ‘New Libyan PM was Alabama professor for 20 years’. Boston.com (online), 1 November 2012. Available at http://www.boston.com/news/education/ higher/articles/2011/11/01/new_libyan_pm_was_alabama_professor_ for_20_years/ (Accessed 26 February 2012).
  100. BBC News, ‘Libya’s Prime Minister Abdurrahim al-Keib in profile’. BBC News (online), 2 November 2011. Available at http://www.bbc. co.uk/news/world-africa-15552501 (Accessed 26 February 2012).
  101. Holmes, O. ‘Libya’s new prime minister is low-key technocrat’. Reuters (online), 1 November 2011. Available at http://www. reuters.com/article/2011/11/01/us-libya-premier-newsmakeridUSTRE7A052S20111101 (Accessed 26 February 2012).
  102. Holmes, ‘Libya’s new prime minister is low-key technocrat’.
  103. According to Ahmed al-Atrash, a ‘Libyan political scientist’, quoted in Holmes, ‘Libya’s new prime minister is low-key technocrat’.
  104. France 24, ‘Libya needs ‘tremendous help’, interim PM says’. France 24 (online), 5 November 2011. Available at http://www.france24.com/ en/20111104-libya-international-community-interim-pm-gaddafi-ntcabdurrahim- el-keib-interview (Accessed 26 February 2012).
  105. BBC News, ‘Key figures in post-Gaddafi Libya’.
  106. The Tripoli Post, ‘Ex-NTC Minister Describes New Cabinet as An Unrepresentative Elite’. The Tripoli Post (online), 25 November 2011. Available at http://tripolipost.com/articledetail. asp?c=1&i=7366&archive=1 (Accessed 26 February 2012).
  107. The Tripoli Post, ‘Ex-NTC Minister Describes New Cabinet as An Unrepresentative Elite’.
  108. Associated Press, ‘Libyans storm transitional government headquarters in Benghazi’. The Guardian (online), 21 January 2012. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jan/21/libyanstransitional- government-headquarters-benghazi (Accessed 25 January 2012).
  109. Al-Jazeera, ‘Why are Libyans protesting again?’ Al-Jazeera (online), 23 January 2012. Available at http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/ insidestory/2012/01/201212354345879885.html (Accessed 25 January 2012).
  110. ABC News, ‘Libya’s NTC deputy resigns amid protests’. ABC News (online), 23 January 2012. Available at http://www.abc.net.au/ news/2012-01-23/libya27s-ntc-deputy-resigns-amid-protests/3787054 (Accessed 26 January 2012).
  111. Al-Jazeera, ‘Why are Libyans protesting again?’
  112. BBC News, ‘Libya: NTC deputy chief Abdel Hafiz Ghoga resigns’. BBC News (online), 22 January 2012. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/ news/world-africa-16671590 (Accessed 25 January 2012).
  113. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 1.
  114. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. 2.
  115. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. ii.
  116. ICG, ‘Holding Libya Together’, p. i.
  117. Elkin, M. ‘Exiles Return to Libya Contentiously’. Inter Press Service (online), 17 February 2012. Available at http://www.ips.org/ africa/2012/02/exiles-return-to-libya-contentiously/ (Accessed 28 February 2012).
  118. Elkin, ‘Exiles Return to Libya Contentiously’.
  119. He did this by smuggling internet servers from the US into Libya for the NTC. Elkin, ‘Exiles Return to Libya Contentiously’.
  120. Miles, T. ‘Libya after Gaddafi: ‘The continuity is striking’’. Red Pepper (online), December 2011. Available at http://www.redpepper. org.uk/libya-after-gaddafi/ (Accessed 4 April 2012).
  121. ICG, ‘Making Sense of Libya’, p. 3.
  122. Elkin, ‘Exiles Return to Libya Contentiously’.
  123. Elkin, ‘Exiles Return to Libya Contentiously’.
  124. See, for example Bugaighis, R. ‘Emerging Forces On Libya’s Political Scene’. Shabab Libya (online), 4 April 2012. Available at http://www. shabablibya.org/news/emerging-forces-on-libyas-political-scene (Accessed 4 April 2012).
  125. Al-Jazeera, ‘The Long Road to Tripoli: part one’. Al-Jazeera (online), 8 December 2011. Available at http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/ gaddafitheendgame/2011/12/201112874023937788.html (Accessed 30 February 2012).
  126. Black, I. ‘Libyans try to get back property seized by Gaddafi’. The Guardian (online), 4 November 2011. Available at http://www.guardian. co.uk/world/2011/nov/04/libya-gaddafi-property-restitution-demands (Accessed 30 February 2012).
  127. Law No: 4, see Murray, R. ‘Libyans Now Battle Over Housing’. Inter Press Service (online), 17 April 2012. Available at http://www.ips.org/ africa/2012/04/libyans-now-battle-over-housing/ (Accessed 18 April 2012).
  128. Murray, ‘Libyans Now Battle Over Housing’.
  129. For detail on previous and ongoing claims see United States Diplomatic Mission to Germany, ‘Summary of Property Restitution in Central and Eastern Europe’. (Berlin: United States Diplomatic Mission to Germany, 2002). (online). Available at http://germany.usembassy. gov/germany/img/assets/8497/property.pdf (Accessed 18 April 2012).
  130. Murray, ‘Libyans Now Battle Over Housing’.
  131. Al-Jazeera, ‘The Long Road to Tripoli’.
  132. Elkin, ‘Exiles Return to Libya Contentiously’.
  133. Miles, ‘Libya after Gaddafi’.
  134. Stephen, C. and Harding, L. ‘Amnesty finds widespread use of torture by Libyan militias’. The Guardian (online), 16 February 2012. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/feb/16/amnestywidespread- torture-libyan-militias (Accessed 4 April 2012).
  135. Al Jazeera, ‘Who is really controlling Libya?’
  136. Libya Herald, ‘Ali Tarhouni launches party’.
  137. On this topic see, for example Miles, ‘Libya after Gaddafi’.

Suggested Reading from Inquiries Journal

Over the last couple of decades, women-spearheaded social movements have mobilized to leave a lasting impression on civil societies across the globe. The Arab Spring challenged old ideas of oppressive regimes and signaled... MORE»
This article explores the role that the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) played in the 2011 intervention in Libya. It examines the R2P legal framework in coordination with events on the ground in Libya during the early part of 2011 in order to thoroughly explain that R2P was correctly invoked by the United Nations Security Council... MORE»
Elyès Jouini is the vice-president for research of Université Paris-Dauphine and former Minister for the Economic and Social Reforms of the Tunisian transition government. He currently serves as the President of the Fondation Paris-Dauphine, and as Chairman of the Institut de Finance of Universitè Paris-Dauphine... MORE»
"If you wish to fault the administration, it's that we didn't have a clear picture, and we probably didn't do as clear a job explaining that we did not have a clear picture, until days later, creating what I think are legitimate... MORE»
Submit to Inquiries Journal, Get a Decision in 10-Days

Inquiries Journal provides undergraduate and graduate students around the world a platform for the wide dissemination of academic work over a range of core disciplines.

Representing the work of students from hundreds of institutions around the globe, Inquiries Journal's large database of academic articles is completely free. Learn more | Blog | Submit

Follow SP

Latest in Political Science

2019, Vol. 11 No. 02
In recent years, climate change has been increasingly framed as a security issue, with some theorists going so far as to call it the most important security issue of the 21st century. This paper will examine the relationship between climate change... Read Article »
2019, Vol. 11 No. 02
The Haitian Revolution of 1791 – 1804 was a successful slave rebellion in the French colony of Saint-Domingue that began in the wake of the French Revolution and went on to influence subsequent liberation movements for decades to come. The... Read Article »
2019, Vol. 11 No. 02
American politics today operates in an arena where truth and objective reality are bent to the designs of particular interests, powerful people and commercial profiteers. All facts are questioned; the truth has purposes. Populist and nationalist... Read Article »
2019, Vol. 11 No. 01
Globalization is generally studied as a process that extensively impacts nations and peoples across every aspect of society. Empirical and theoretical research largely focuses on this effect, seeking to discover the impact of an increasingly globalized... Read Article »
2018, Vol. 10 No. 10
The following paper seeks to elucidate the complex processes involved in the Mexican State’s loss of authority and the subsequent acquisition of this authority by armed criminal groups operating in that country. In theoretical terms, this... Read Article »
2018, Vol. 10 No. 07
The Polish populist Law and Justice Party (PiS) overturned the mainstream consensus in Polish politics by returning to power in 2015 with a populist platform, decrying a selfish elite and advancing policies that critics saw as illiberal and authoritarian... Read Article »
2018, Vol. 10 No. 05
Texas introduced Senate Bill 277 as its first wind energy siting law during the 2017 Legislature. The bill combats radar interference between wind and military equipment by exempting any wind farm within thirty nautical miles of a military base... Read Article »

What are you looking for?


What is the Secret to Success?
How to Use Regression Analysis Effectively
How to Select a Graduate Research Advisor